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SIZ1 is a SUMO E3 ligase that facilitates conjugation of SUMO to protein substrates. siz1-2 and siz1-3 T-DNA insertion alleles that caused freezing and chilling sensitivities were complemented genetically by expressing SIZ1, indicating that the SIZ1 is a controller of low temperature adaptation in plants. Cold-induced expression of CBF/DREB1, particularly(More)
Phototaxis in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is mediated by rhodopsin-type photoreceptor(s). Recent expressed sequence tag database from the Kazusa DNA Research Institute has provided the basis for unequivocal identification of two archaeal-type rhodopsins in it. Here we demonstrate that one is located near the eyespot, wherein the(More)
Reversible modifications of target proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins are involved in many cellular processes in yeast and animals. Yet little is known about the function of sumoylation in plants. Here, we show that the SIZ1 gene, which encodes an Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase, regulates innate immunity. Mutant siz1 plants exhibit(More)
Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental stresses. Freezing or extremely low temperature constitutes a key factor influencing plant growth, development and crop productivity. Plants have evolved a mechanism to enhance tolerance to freezing during exposure to periods of low, but non-freezing temperatures. This phenomenon is called cold(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant-pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses,(More)
The small ubiquitin related modifier (SUMO)-mediated posttranslational protein modification is widely conserved among eukaryotes. Similar to ubiquitination, SUMO modifications are attached to the substrate protein through three reaction steps by the E1, E2 and E3 enzymes. To date, multiple families of SUMO E3 ligases have been reported in yeast and animals,(More)
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to CO2-limiting stress by inducing a set of genes for a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM). This set includes the gene Cah1, which encodes a periplasmic carbonic anhydrase. Although physiological aspects of CO2response have been extensively studied, regulatory components, such as transcription factors involved in the(More)
Large-scale high-speed mass-storage systems account for a large part of the energy consumed at data centers. To conserve energy consumed by these storage systems, we propose a high-speed tiered-storage system with a power-aware proactive method of storage-tiering management that minimizes loss of performance, which we have called the energy-efficient(More)
COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a(More)
Raphanusanin (Ra) is a light-induced inhibitor of hypocotyl growth that responds to unilateral blue light illumination in radish seedlings. We have previously shown that Ra regulates genes that are involved in common defense mechanisms. Many genes that are induced by Ra are also positively regulated by early blue light. To extend the understanding of the(More)