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To adapt behavior to a changing environment, one must monitor outcomes of executed actions and adjust subsequent actions accordingly. Involvement of the medial frontal cortex in performance monitoring has been suggested, but little is known about neural processes that link performance monitoring to performance adjustment. Here, we recorded from neurons in(More)
Lurasidone [(3aR,4S,7R,7aS)-2-[(1R,2R)-2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)piperazin-1-ylmethyl]cyclohexylmethyl]hexahydro-4,7-methano-2H-isoindole-1,3-dione hydrochloride; SM-13496] is an azapirone derivative and a novel antipsychotic candidate. The objective of the current studies was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of(More)
We can discriminate visual objects at multiple levels, from coarse categorization to individual identification. It is not known how the brain adapts to the varying levels of discrimination required in different behavioral contexts. In the present study, we investigated whether the stimulus selectivity of neuronal responses in the monkey inferotemporal(More)
The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression.(More)
Achieving goals in changing environments requires the course of action to be selected on the basis of goal expectation and memory of action-outcome contingency. It is often also essential to evaluate action on the basis of immediate outcomes and the discrimination of early action steps from the final step towards the goal. Recently, in single-cell(More)
People act more prosocially when they know they are watched by others, an everyday observation borne out by studies from behavioral economics, social psychology, and cognitive neuroscience. This effect is thought to be mediated by the incentive to improve one's social reputation, a specific and possibly uniquely human motivation that depends on our ability(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disease. We recently described an animal model in which repeated epicutaneous applications of a house dust mite extract and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B induced eczematous skin lesions. In this study we showed that global gene expression patterns are very similar between human AD skin and(More)
Respiratory epithelial cells play important roles not only in host defense mechanisms, but also in inflammatory responses. Inhaled corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of patients with inflammatory lung disorders, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis. Corticosteroids effectively reduce the production of(More)
Asthma is a complex phenotype influenced by genetic and environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 938 Japanese pediatric asthma patients and 2,376 controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing strong associations (P<1×10(-8)) in GWAS were further genotyped in an independent Japanese samples (818 cases and(More)
BACKGROUND The sclera maintains and protects the eye ball, which receives visual inputs. Although the sclera does not contribute significantly to visual perception, scleral diseases such as refractory scleritis, scleral perforation and pathological myopia are considered incurable or difficult to cure. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of(More)