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To adapt behavior to a changing environment, one must monitor outcomes of executed actions and adjust subsequent actions accordingly. Involvement of the medial frontal cortex in performance monitoring has been suggested, but little is known about neural processes that link performance monitoring to performance adjustment. Here, we recorded from neurons in(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are activated in response to various extracellular stimuli, including growth factors and environmental stresses. A MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK), termed ASK1, was identified that activated two different subgroups of MAP kinase kinases (MAPKK), SEK1 (or MKK4) and MKK3/MAPKK6 (or MKK6), which in turn(More)
We have previously shown that Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells grown in collagen gels in the presence of fibroblasts or fibroblast-conditioned medium (CM) form branching tubules, instead of the spherical cysts that develop under control conditions. We now report that the fibroblast-derived molecule responsible for epithelial tubulogenesis(More)
In plants, a number of MAP kinase (MAPK), MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK) homologues have been reported. However, there have been no reports of protein-protein interactions between these kinases or molecular analysis of MAPK cascades in higher plants. To analyze a possible MAPK cascade in Arabidopsis thaliana, we took two molecular(More)
The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) of the MAP kinase superfamily is activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses and is involved in apoptosis in neurons. However, the roles of the JNK signaling pathway in the nervous system are unknown. The genes for the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of JNK, JNK-1, and its direct activator, JKK-1, were isolated(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved eukaryotic signaling module that converts receptor signals into various outputs. MAPK is activated through phosphorylation by MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which is first activated by MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK). A genetic selection based on a MAPK pathway in yeast was used to identify a mouse protein(More)
The tumor suppressor PTEN is a phosphatase with sequence similarity to the cytoskeletal protein tensin. Here the cellular roles of PTEN were investigated. Overexpression of PTEN inhibited cell migration, whereas antisense PTEN enhanced migration. Integrin-mediated cell spreading and the formation of focal adhesions were down-regulated by wild-type PTEN but(More)
Lurasidone [(3aR,4S,7R,7aS)-2-[(1R,2R)-2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)piperazin-1-ylmethyl]cyclohexylmethyl]hexahydro-4,7-methano-2H-isoindole-1,3-dione hydrochloride; SM-13496] is an azapirone derivative and a novel antipsychotic candidate. The objective of the current studies was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of(More)
To examine the effects of higher mental activity on the EEG, 480 Japanese patients with different types of epilepsy were subjected to potentially provocative cognitive tasking, termed 'neuropsychological EEG activation' (NPA), during standard EEG recordings. NPA tasks consisted of reading, speaking, writing, written arithmetic calculation, mental arithmetic(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has several effects in the inflammation process. When it binds to its cell-surface receptor, IL-1 initiates a signalling cascade that leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and is relayed through the protein TRAF6 and a succession of kinase enzymes, including NF-kappaB-inducing(More)