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This study was designed to describe and clarify muscle activities which occur while walking in water. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to evaluate muscle activities in six healthy subjects (mean age, 23.3 +/- 1.4 years) while they walked on a treadmill in water (with or without a water current) immersed to the level of the xiphoid process, and while(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not the exercise intensity of water-walking for elderly women could be accurately prescribed by heart rate data obtained during treadmill exercise on land. Six healthy female volunteers, with a mean age of 62.2 +/- 4.2 years, took part in this study. Walking on land was performed on a treadmill.(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity and patterns during deep water running (DWR) and treadmill running (TMR) at equivalent levels of RPE. METHODS Subjects (n = 7, 26.3 ± 4.3 yr, 158.2 ± 9.9 cm, 61.0 ± 6.6 kg) performed DWR and TMR at RPE values of 11 (fairly light), 13 (somewhat hard), and 15 (hard). Surface EMG was used to(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate how lower extremity muscles are influenced by body weight support during running at different speeds. Nine participants (age 24 ± 2 years, height 1.75 ± 0.12 m, mass 73.5 ± 15.7 kg) ran at 100%, 115%, and 125% of preferred speed at 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, and 60% of body weight on a treadmill that provided body weight(More)
We investigated muscle activity during deep water running (DWR) and treadmill running on dry land (TMR) at similar physiological responses. 9 subjects (30.7±10.4 years) participated in this study. The baseline conditions consisted of TMR at 3 ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) level (RPE 11, 13, and 15) with heart rate (HR) recorded during each condition.(More)
The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether walking backward in water and walking backward on dry land elicit different electromyographic (EMG) activities in lower-extremity and trunk muscles. Surface EMG was used to evaluate muscle activities while six healthy subjects walked backward in water (with and without a water current, Water + Cur and(More)
This investigation compared muscle activities and heart rate (HR) responses while subjects walked backward or forward in water, with and without a water current. Ten healthy males (23.5+/-1.4 years) volunteered for the study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to evaluate muscle activities while the subjects walked in water, immersed to the level of(More)
Quantifying muscle activity during locomotion in water is an emerging area of research. This article discusses the methods for quantifying muscle activity and summarizes key research findings of muscle activity during locomotion in water. The article is focused on comparing muscle activity during locomotion in water and on dry land.
We compared physiological and perceptual responses, and stride characteristics while walking backward in water with those of walking forward in water. Eight males walked on an underwater treadmill, immersed to their xiphoid process level. Oxygen uptake ((.)V(O2)), respiratory exchange ratio (R), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation ((.)V(E)), blood lactate(More)
This study compared the muscle activities, cardiorespiratory responses, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) of nine older individuals while walking in water with those obtained while walking on dry land. Electromyography, stride frequency (SF), stride length (SL), oxygen uptake (V O(2)), heart rate (HR), RPE (for breathing and legs, RPE-Br and RPE-Legs,(More)