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Repbase Update (RU) is a database of representative repeat sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Since its first development as a database of human repetitive sequences in 1992, RU has been serving as a well-curated reference database fundamental for almost all eukaryotic genome sequence analyses. Here, we introduce recent updates of RU, focusing on technical(More)
BACKGROUND The wheat stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, PST) is responsible for significant yield losses in wheat production worldwide. In spite of its economic importance, the PST genomic sequence is not currently available. Fortunately Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has radically improved sequencing speed and efficiency with a(More)
To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs--the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds--we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of(More)
alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) both suppress food intake, and the alpha-MSH- or CRH-signaling pathway has possible potency to mediate anorexigenic actions induced by most other neuropeptides in goldfish. Therefore, using specific receptor antagonists, we examined whether the anorexigenic actions of(More)
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic genomes harbor diverse families of repetitive DNA derived from transposable elements (TEs) that are able to replicate and insert into genomic DNA. The biological role of TEs remains unclear, although they have profound mutagenic impact on eukaryotic genomes and the origin of repetitive families often correlates with speciation events.(More)
Chicken repeat 1 (CR1) retroposons are long interspersed elements (LINEs) that are ubiquitous within amniote genomes and constitute the most abundant family of transposed elements in birds, crocodilians, turtles, and snakes. They are also present in mammalian genomes, where they reside as numerous relics of ancient retroposition events. Yet, despite their(More)
Autonomous non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons and their repetitive remnants are ubiquitous components of mammalian genomes. Recently, we identified non-LTR retrotransposon families, Ingi-1_AAl and Ingi-1_EE, in two hedgehog genomes. Here we rename them to Vingi-1_AAl and Vingi-1_EE and report a new clade "Vingi," which is a sister clade of(More)
The glycine cleavage system (GCS) is a mitochondrial multienzyme system consisting of four individual proteins, three specific components (P-, T-, and H-proteins) and one house-keeping enzyme, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Inherited deficiency of the GCS causes nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), an inborn error of glycine metabolism. NKH is characterized(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) contents in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra from control and parkinsonism brains were measured for the first time by a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Both the TH protein content and TH activity (Vmax) were decreased in parallel in the parkinsonian brains as compared with those of the control brains. In contrast, TH(More)
Orexin is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation of mammals. However, except for the case of goldfish, the involvement of orexin in the feeding behavior of teleost fish has not well been studied. Therefore, we investigated the role of orexin on food intake using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We examined the effect of feeding(More)