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Pancreatic insulin-producing beta-cells have a long lifespan, such that in healthy conditions they replicate little during a lifetime. Nevertheless, they show increased self-duplication after increased metabolic demand or after injury (that is, beta-cell loss). It is not known whether adult mammals can differentiate (regenerate) new beta-cells after(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their lympho-hematopoietic progeny are supported by microenvironmental niches within bone marrow; however, the identity, nature, and function of these niches remain unclear. Short-term ablation of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells in vivo did not affect the candidate niches, bone-lining(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, and is associated with vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Although the connection between ER stress and some disease-related proteins has been studied using animal models of these diseases, no in vivo data concerning ER stress are available. Here we(More)
Bone remodeling is performed by osteoclasts and osteoblasts at the bone surface. Inside of bone is a network of numerous osteocytes, whose specific function has remained an enigma. Here we describe a transgenic mouse model in which inducible and specific ablation of osteocytes is achieved in vivo through targeted expression of diphtheria toxin (DT)(More)
Chaperone protein BiP binds to Ire1 and dissociates in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, it remains unclear how the signal transducer Ire1 senses ER stress and is subsequently activated. The crystal structure of the core stress-sensing region (CSSR) of yeast Ire1 luminal domain led to the controversial suggestion that the molecule can(More)
The body's capacity to restore damaged neural networks in the injured CNS is severely limited. Although various treatment regimens can partially alleviate spinal cord injury (SCI), the mechanisms responsible for symptomatic improvement remain elusive. Here, using a mouse model of SCI, we have shown that transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) together(More)
Eukaryotic cells activate the unfolded-protein response (UPR) upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, where the stress is assumed to be the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. Consistent with previous in vitro studies of the ER-luminal domain of the mutant UPR initiator Ire1, our study show its association with a model unfolded protein in yeast(More)
A point mutation (P56S) in the vapb gene encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-integrated membrane protein [vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB)] causes autosomal-dominant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In our earlier study, we showed that VAPB may be involved in the IRE1/XBP1 signaling of the unfolded protein response, an ER(More)
Upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, an endoribonuclease, inositol-requiring enzyme-1α, splices the precursor unspliced form of X-box-binding protein 1 messenger RNA (XBP1u mRNA) on the ER membrane to yield an active transcription factor (XBP1s), leading to the alleviation of the stress. The nascent peptide encoded by XBP1u mRNA drags the(More)
In the unfolded protein response, the type I transmembrane protein Ire1 transmits an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signal to the cytoplasm. We previously reported that under nonstressed conditions, the ER chaperone BiP binds and represses Ire1. It is still unclear how this event contributes to the overall regulation of Ire1. The present Ire1 mutation(More)