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The effects of the dopamine agonists apomorphine, GBR-12909, nomifensine and methamphetamine on latent learning were investigated using a one-trial, water-finding task in mice. Mice without water deprivation were given these agonists or their vehicle before a training trial which consisted of exposure to a novel open-field environment containing a water(More)
The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of dopamine blockers on memory processes by means of a one-trial passive avoidance (PA) task with ddY mice. Haloperidol (0.025-0.4 mg/kg i.p.) did not affect the PA response when it was given before the training or retention test. Sulpiride (10-80 mg/kg i.p.) had different effects, depending on(More)
The possible involvement of GABAergic neuronal systems in benzodiazepine (BZP)-induced impairment of a passive avoidance response was investigated. Chlordiazepoxide (CDP) impaired passive avoidance when administered prior to training. The CDP-induced impairment was antagonized by pretreatment with picrotoxin, but not by pretreatment with bicuculline or(More)
The effects of apomorphine (0.0125-1 mg/kg, SC), a dopamine (DA) agonist, on passive avoidance learning were assessed in mice which received brief and long foot-shocks in a training test. At low doses, apomorphine stimulates DA autoreceptors. With a shock of brief duration, apomorphine at a low dose (0.05 mg/kg), enhanced the avoidance learning when it was(More)
The effect of phencyclidine (PCP) on latent learning was investigated using a one-trial water-finding task in mice. Mice without water deprivation were given PCP or saline before a training trial, which consisted of exposure to a novel open-field environment with an alcove containing a water tube. Twenty to twenty-four hours after water deprivation, animals(More)
We investigated the effects of nefiracetam (DM-9384), a pyrrolidone derivative, on chlordiazepoxide-, apomorphine-, and methamphetamine-induced impairment of latent learning in a water finding test in mice. Pretreatment with nefiracetam reversed the inhibitory effects of chlordiazepoxide and apomorphine, but not those of methamphetamine, on latent learning.(More)
BACKGROUND One of the most important challenges in the study of aging is to discover compounds with longevity-promoting activities and to unravel their underlying mechanisms. Royal jelly (RJ) has been reported to possess diverse beneficial properties. Furthermore, protease-treated RJ (pRJ) has additional pharmacological activities. Exactly how RJ and pRJ(More)
Our main purpose was to clarify the differences between the effects of dopamine D-1 (SCH 23390) and D-2 (pimozide) antagonists on memory acquisition in a water-finding and a one-trial passive avoidance task with ddY mice. In the water-finding task, pimozide (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg i.p.) enhanced the acquisition of latent learning of mice although it suppressed(More)
Brazilian green propolis is a popular health supplement because of its various biological properties. The ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEBP) is characteristic for its herb-like smell and unique pungent taste. However, the ingredients responsible for its pungency have not yet been identified. This study provides the first evidence that(More)