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Subcutaneous injection of formalin into a paw of mice caused two distinct phases of licking and biting, first phase (1-5 min) and the second phase (7-30 min) after the injection. The muscarinic antagonist atropine (0.1-10 ng, i.t.) and the M(3) receptor antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP) (0.1-20 ng, i.t.) inhibited the(More)
The present study was undertaken to clarify how spinal muscarinic receptors can be involved in the antinociceptive effects induced by morphine in thermal stimulation. The morphine-induced antinociceptive effects (26.6 micromol/kg, s.c.) was inhibited by an intrathecal (i.t.) injection of the muscarinic antagonist (M) atropine and the M(1)/M(4) antagonist(More)
The neurohypophyseal peptide [Arg(8)]-vasopressin (AVP) exerts major physiological actions through three distinct receptor isoforms designated V1a, V1b, and V2. Among these three subtypes, the vasopressin V1b receptor is specifically expressed in pituitary corticotrophs and mediates the stimulatory effect of vasopressin on ACTH release. To investigate the(More)
ATP is released into extracellular space as an autocrine/paracrine molecule by mechanical stress and pharmacological-receptor activation. Released ATP is partly metabolized by ectoenzymes to adenosine. In the present study, we found that adenosine causes ATP release in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This release was completely inhibited by CPT (an A1(More)
Intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in ATP release evoked by angiotensin II (Ang II) were investigated in cultured guinea pig Taenia coli smooth muscle cells. Ang II (0.3-1 microM) elicited substantial release of ATP from the cells, but not from a human fibroblast cell line. However, Ang II even at 10 microM failed to cause a leakage of(More)
We examined the role of the spinal muscarinic receptor subtype in the anti-nociceptive effect of intrathecal (i.t.) alpha2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine in mice. I.t. injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine completely inhibited i.t. clonidine-induced increase in the mechanical threshold, but did not affect the increase in tail-flick(More)
The P2X receptor is a receptor-gated cationic channel that responds to ATP. The quantification of P2X mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) provides important information for neuropathic pain studies. We developed a rapid and sensitive external-standard-based real-time quantitative PCR assay for the quantification of mRNA of P2X receptors in mouse(More)
We examined endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated relaxation of mesenteric arteries in high-sodium loaded streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The study shows that acetylcholine (ACh)-induced, EDHF-mediated relaxation is relatively maintained in STZ-induced diabetic rats, but after a high-sodium diet was given, the function was(More)
In this paper, we directly demonstrate, for the first time, the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) in the spinal cord of diabetic mice. In streptozotocin (STZ)-treated (200 mg/kg, i.v.) diabetic mice, hypersensitivity (allodynia) to mechanical stimulation appeared 7 d after STZ injection. This mechanical allodynia was inhibited by(More)
In this study, we examined the effects of an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and of selective agonists for PGE2 receptor subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4, on central cardiovascular regulation and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats. The central administration of PGE2 (0.01-1.0 nmol)(More)