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1. The spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition in the cat motor cortex was studied in in vitro slice preparations in the presence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). 2. After intracortical microstimulation (0.5-6 microA), fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were produced in layers II-VI(More)
Second-order vestibular neurons form the central links of the vestibulo-oculomotor three-neuron arcs that mediate compensatory eye movements. Most of the axons that provide for vertical vestibulo-ocular reflexes ascend in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) toward target neurons in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. We have now determined the(More)
1. Modulatory actions of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were studied with whole-cell recordings from superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurones in neonatal rat spinal cord slices. In one-third of SDH neurones, 5-HT induced a sustained potentiation of evoked EPSCs lasting for more than 30 min after wash-out.(More)
1. To investigate the type of vestibular signals that neurons in the caudal parts of the vestibular nuclei transmit to the cerebellum and spinal cord, we studied their responses to natural vestibular stimulation in vertical planes in decerebrate cats with the caudal cerebellum removed. Most neurons were in the caudal half of the descending vestibular(More)
We describe a patient who developed a severe but temporally limited retrograde amnesia coupled with a relatively mild anterograde amnesia following herpes simplex encephalitis. The patient showed a profound retrograde amnesia for autobiographical events extending for about 10 years prior to the disease onset. Her knowledge about public events and famous(More)
The lateral tegmental field (LTF), which is comprised of the lateral reticular formation near the obex, is an important integrative area involved in cardiovascular control and the production of emesis. Using neuroanatomical and electrophysiological techniques, we tested the hypothesis that LTF neurons receive vestibular inputs; the neurons studied included(More)
1. Tight-seal whole-cell recordings were made from marginal neurones visually identified in thin slices of 1- to 2-week-old rat lumbar spinal cord. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), either evoked by extracellular stimulation or those arising spontaneously in tetrodotoxin, i.e. miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs), were recorded after blocking inhibitory(More)
A study was made on the mechanisms by which enkephalins inhibit synaptic transmission at calyx-type presynaptic terminals in the ciliary ganglion of chick embryos at stages 39-40. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded by nystatin-perforated patch clamp at low [Ca2+]o and high [Mg2+]o. [Leu5]enkephalin (L-ENK, 1-10 microM) reduced the(More)
EEG data obtained from 27 patients with presenile Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 28 patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) were compared with data from 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Both patient groups exhibited more pronounced delta and theta activity and less prominent alpha and beta activity than the controls. AD, however, was(More)
1. Connections from the utricular (UT) nerve to motoneurons and interneurons in the ipsilateral abducens (AB) nucleus were studied in anesthetized and decerebrated cats. Bipolar electrodes were fixed on the left UT nerve under visual observation. The other branches of the vestibular nerve and the facial nerve were transected in the left inner ear. 2.(More)