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Recent empirical studies have implicated the use of the motor system during action observation, imitation and social interaction. In this paper, we explore the computational parallels between the processes that occur in motor control and in action observation, imitation, social interaction and theory of mind. In particular, we examine the extent to which(More)
This article presents a reinforcement learning framework for continuous-time dynamical systems without a priori discretization of time, state, and action. Based on the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation for infinite-horizon, discounted reward problems, we derive algorithms for estimating value functions and improving policies with the use of function(More)
This paper presents a computational theory on the roles of the ascending neuromodulatory systems from the viewpoint that they mediate the global signals that regulate the distributed learning mechanisms in the brain. Based on the review of experimental data and theoretical models, it is proposed that dopamine signals the error in reward prediction,(More)
The classical notion that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are dedicated to motor control has been challenged by the accumulation of evidence revealing their involvement in non-motor, cognitive functions. From a computational viewpoint, it has been suggested that the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex are specialized for different(More)
Recent studies have shown that multiple brain areas contribute to different stages and aspects of procedural learning. On the basis of a series of studies using a sequence-learning task with trial-and-error, we propose a hypothetical scheme in which a sequential procedure is acquired independently by two cortical systems, one using spatial coordinates and(More)
Evaluation of both immediate and future outcomes of one's actions is a critical requirement for intelligent behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain mechanisms for reward prediction at different time scales in a Markov decision task. When human subjects learned actions on the basis of immediate rewards, significant(More)
The estimation of the reward an action will yield is critical in decision-making. To elucidate the role of the basal ganglia in this process, we recorded striatal neurons of monkeys who chose between left and right handle turns, based on the estimated reward probabilities of the actions. During a delay period before the choices, the activity of more than(More)
The classical notion that the cerebellum and the basal ganglia are dedicated to motor control is under dispute given increasing evidence of their involvement in non-motor functions. Is it then impossible to characterize the functions of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex in a s implistic manner? This paper presents a novel view that(More)
Source current estimation from MEG measurement is an ill-posed problem that requires prior assumptions about brain activity and an efficient estimation algorithm. In this article, we propose a new hierarchical Bayesian method introducing a hierarchical prior that can effectively incorporate both structural and functional MRI data. In our method, the(More)
We propose a modular reinforcement learning architecture for nonlinear, nonstationary control tasks, which we call multiple model-based reinforcement learning (MMRL). The basic idea is to decompose a complex task into multiple domains in space and time based on the predictability of the environmental dynamics. The system is composed of multiple modules,(More)