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FTY720, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator, induces a marked decrease in the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes and exerts immunomodulating activity in various experimental allograft and autoimmune disease models. In this study, we evaluated the effect of FTY720 and its active metabolite, (S)-enantiomer of FTY720-phosphate [(S)-FTY720-P] on(More)
Circulation of mature lymphocytes between blood and secondary lymphoid tissues plays a central role in the immune system. Homing of lymphocytes from blood into secondary lymphoid tissues beyond high endothelial venules is highly dependent on the interaction between the chemokines CCL19, CCL21, CXCL12, and CXCL13, and their receptors CCR7, CXCR4 and CXCR5.(More)
Recent advanced immunological analyses have revealed that the diversity and plasticity of macrophages lead to the identification of functional polarization states (classically activated M1 type and alternatively activated M2 type) which are dependent on the extracellular environment. M1 and M2 polarization states of macrophages play an important role in(More)
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is widely used for the therapy of liver dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of UDCA in concanavalin A-induced mouse liver injury. The treatment with UDCA at oral doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg at 2 h before concanavalin A injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of aminotransferases and(More)
Objective and Design: Anti-arthritic effect of FTY720, a novel immunosuppressant, was compared with those of immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and tacrolimus in adjuvant- induced arthritis in rats.¶Material: Male LEW rats.¶Treatment: FTY720 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg), cyclosporin A (1-10 mg/kg) or tacrolimus (0.3-3 mg/kg) were orally administered to rats for 21 days(More)
OBJECTIVE Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed to be a useful tool for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), not only because of their multipotency but also because of their immunosuppressive effect on lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and other proinflammatory cells. Since bone destruction caused by activated osteoclasts occurs in RA, we(More)
Fingolimod (FTY720) is a first-in-class, orally active, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-receptor modulator with a structure closely related to sphingosine. The compound was discovered by chemical modification of a natural product, myriocin. Phosphorylated form of FTY720 acts as a functional antagonist at S1P receptor type 1 (S1P(1)), inhibits lymphocyte(More)
Infiltration of myelin-specific helper T (Th) cells into the central nervous system (CNS) plays a key role in pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, we investigated the involvement of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) axis in lymphocytes for EAE development when C57BL/6 mice were immunized with(More)
The goal of this paper is to investigate the effects of activated complement C5a on vascular endothelium during vessel formation. A human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) derived from post-capillary venules in skin was used to measure DNA synthesis, proliferation and cell-cycle progression. In vitro ring-shaped formation by the cells was(More)
Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder were thought to be caused by neurotransmitter abnormalities. Patients with these disorders often experience relapse and remission; however the underlying molecular mechanisms of relapse and remission still remain unclear. Recent advanced immunological analyses have revealed that M1/M2(More)