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Psychophysical evidence indicates that visual motion can be sensed by low-level (energy-based) and high-level (feature-based) mechanisms. The present experiments were undertaken to determine which of these mechanisms mediates the initial ocular following response (OFR) that can be elicited at ultra-short latencies by sudden motion of large-field images. We(More)
BACKGROUND Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity. METHODS We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial(More)
Tremor disorders pose fundamental questions about disease mechanisms, and challenges to successful neurotherapeutics: What causes motor circuits to oscillate in disorders in which the central nervous system otherwise seems normal? How does inheritance 'determine' the clinical phenotype in familial tremor disorders? Here, we address these questions.(More)
Primates are able to track a moving target with their eyes, even when the target is seen against a stationary textured background. In this situation, the tracking eye movement induces motion of the background images on the retina (reafference) that competes with the motion of the target's retinal image, potentially disrupting the tracking of the target.(More)
Recent linkage analyses of nondiabetic African-American patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) have identified MYH9, encoding nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA), as a gene having a critical role in this disease. Abnormalities of the MYH9 locus also underlie rare autosomal dominant diseases such as May-Hegglin anomaly, and(More)
Saccadic oscillations threaten clear vision by causing image motion on the retina. They are either purely horizontal (ocular flutter) or multidimensional (opsoclonus). We propose that ion channel dysfunction in the burst cell membrane is the underlying abnormality. We have tested this hypothesis by simulating a neuromimetic computational model of the burst(More)
Dent disease is an X-linked disorder characterized by low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, urolithiasis and renal dysfunction. Dent disease is caused by mutations in at least two genes, i.e. CLCN5 and OCRL1, and its genetic background and phenotypes are common among European countries and the USA. However, only few(More)
Our previous study showed that the saliency of a target increases the gain of smooth pursuit initiation. In this study, we examined the interocular transfer of this effect in five humans. A square red frame surrounding the target was used as a cue to indicate the initial target position. In the cue condition, the responses were similar, irrespective of the(More)
To study the initial part of the mouse optokinetic response, OKR (approximately 500 ms from the onset of visual stimulus motion), we recorded the ocular response to a vertical sinusoidal grating moving at a constant velocity. We found that the magnitude of the response monotonically increased as the stimulus contrast increased. The response showed a narrow(More)
We studied the effects of horizontal smooth pursuit on the ocular responses to brief vertical perturbations of textured backgrounds in humans. When the subject was fixating on a stationary target, a brief vertical perturbation of the background elicited a small tracking response. When the subject was pursuing a target moving horizontally, the same(More)