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Psychophysical evidence indicates that visual motion can be sensed by low-level (energy-based) and high-level (feature-based) mechanisms. The present experiments were undertaken to determine which of these mechanisms mediates the initial ocular following response (OFR) that can be elicited at ultra-short latencies by sudden motion of large-field images. We(More)
Tremor disorders pose fundamental questions about disease mechanisms, and challenges to successful neurotherapeutics: What causes motor circuits to oscillate in disorders in which the central nervous system otherwise seems normal? How does inheritance 'determine' the clinical phenotype in familial tremor disorders? Here, we address these questions.(More)
Primates are able to track a moving target with their eyes, even when the target is seen against a stationary textured background. In this situation, the tracking eye movement induces motion of the background images on the retina (reafference) that competes with the motion of the target's retinal image, potentially disrupting the tracking of the target.(More)
Saccadic oscillations threaten clear vision by causing image motion on the retina. They are either purely horizontal (ocular flutter) or multidimensional (opsoclonus). We propose that ion channel dysfunction in the burst cell membrane is the underlying abnormality. We have tested this hypothesis by simulating a neuromimetic computational model of the burst(More)
We studied the effects of horizontal smooth pursuit on the ocular responses to brief vertical perturbations of textured backgrounds in humans. When the subject was fixating on a stationary target, a brief vertical perturbation of the background elicited a small tracking response. When the subject was pursuing a target moving horizontally, the same(More)
When tracking a moving target in the natural world with pursuit eye movement, our visual system must compensate for the self-induced retinal slip of the visual features in the background to enable us to perceive their actual motion. We previously reported that the speed of the background stimulus in space is represented by dorsal medial superior temporal(More)
BACKGROUND Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder and its pathophysiology is unknown. We hypothesize that increased membrane excitability in motor circuits has a key role in the pathogenesis of ET. Specifically, we propose that neural circuits controlling ballistic movements are inherently unstable due to their underlying reciprocal(More)
To study the initial part of the mouse optokinetic response, OKR (approximately 500 ms from the onset of visual stimulus motion), we recorded the ocular response to a vertical sinusoidal grating moving at a constant velocity. We found that the magnitude of the response monotonically increased as the stimulus contrast increased. The response showed a narrow(More)
Conductance-based models of reciprocally inhibiting burst neurons suggest that intrinsic membrane properties and postinhibitory rebound (PIR) determine the amplitude and frequency of saccadic oscillations. Reduction of the low-threshold calcium currents (I(T)) in the model decreased the amplitude but increased the frequency of the simulated oscillations.(More)
Congenital nystagmus (CN) is an aperiodic oscillatory eye movement disorder. Horizontal rectus tenotomy with simple re-attachment has been proposed as a therapy for CN. This therapy might affect vision and/or eye movements. Another paper deals with improvements in visual acuity. This and the companion paper examine changes in eye movements. In this study,(More)