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As an intracellular pathogen, the mechanism by which Chlamydia invade eukaryotic cells represents a cornerstone to understanding chlamydial biology. The ability of chlamydiae specifically to bind heparan sulphate or heparin and the association of this ability to bind and enter mammalian host cells was approached by searching experimentally for chlamydial(More)
Unsteady and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the response of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers to the shock waves of various incident angles are presented. The action of an incident shock wave is modeled by adding a momentum in an oblique direction to water molecules adjacent to a bilayer. We thereby elucidate the effects of(More)
The structural change of a phospholipid bilayer in water under the action of a shock wave is numerically studied with unsteady nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The action of shock waves is modeled by the momentum change of water molecules, and thereby we demonstrate that the resulting collapse and rebound of the bilayer are followed by the(More)
Using polystyrene microspheres coated with heparin or heparan sulfate, it was shown that coated microspheres specifically bound eukaryotic cells and were endocytosed by nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Coated microspheres displayed properties of binding to eukaryotic cells that were similar to those of chlamydiae, and the microspheres were competitively(More)
Pulmonary acinus is the largest airway unit provided with alveoli where blood/gas exchange takes place. Understanding the complete structure of acinus is necessary to measure the pathway of gas exchange and to simulate various mechanical phenomena in the lungs. The usual manual segmentation of a complete acinus structure from their experimentally obtained(More)
We demonstrate the self-organization process of a stable pore structure in a phospholipid bilayer by unsteady and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation is started from an initial state including some amount of water molecules in its hydrophobic region, which is a model of a cell membrane stimulated by ultrasound radiation for the(More)
One hypothesis for the mechanism of chlamydial interaction with its eukaryotic host cell invokes a trimolecular mechanism, whereby a Chlamydia-derived glycosaminoglycan bridges a chlamydial acceptor molecule and a host receptor enabling attachment and invasion. We show that a heparan sulphate-specific monoclonal antibody specifically binds a(More)
Rupture of a phospholipid bilayer under mechanical stresses is triggered by pore formation in an intact bilayer. To understand the molecular details of the dynamics of pore formation we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a phospholipid bilayer under two different equibiaxial stretching conditions: first, unsteady stretching with various stretching(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of pore formation in stretched dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers containing different concentrations of cholesterol (0, 20, 40, and 60 mol%) are presented. The stretched bilayers were simulated by constant NPZA||T MD simulations with various constant areas. The effects of the cholesterol concentration on pore(More)
Rupture of biological cell membrane under mechanical stresses is critical for cell viability. It is triggered by local rearrangements of membrane molecules. We investigated the effects of stretching speed on mechanical rupture of phospholipid/cholesterol bilayers using unsteady molecular dynamics simulations. We focused on pore formation, the trigger of(More)