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Spontaneous motion of an oil droplet driven by nonequilibrium chemical conditions is reported. It is shown that the droplet undergoes regular rhythmic motion under appropriately designed boundary conditions, whereas it exhibits random motion in an isotropic environment. This study is a novel manifestation on the direct energy transformation of chemical(More)
We report that structural transitions of DNA cause the ON-OFF switching of transcriptional activity in cooperation with phospholipid membrane in a reconstituted artificial cell. It has been shown that long DNA of more than 20-30 kilo base-pairs exhibits a discrete conformational transition between a coiled state and highly folded states in aqueous solution,(More)
Nucleosome is a fundamental structural unit of chromatin, and the exposure from or occlusion into chromatin of genomic DNA is closely related to the regulation of gene expression. In this study, we analyzed the molecular dynamics of poly-nucleosomal arrays in solution by fast-scanning atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain a visual glimpse of nucleosome(More)
Cell-sized water-in-oil droplet covered by a lipid layer was used to understand how lipid membranes affect biochemical systems in living cells. Here, we report a remarkable acceleration of gene expression in a cell-sized water-in-oil droplet entrapping a cell-free translation system to synthesize GFP (green fluorescent protein). The production rate of GFP(More)
To construct a simple model of a cellular system equipped with motor proteins, cell-sized giant liposomes encapsulating various amounts of actoHMM, the complexes of actin filaments (F-actin) and heavy meromyosin (HMM, an actin-related molecular motor), with a depletion reagent to mimic the crowding effect of inside of living cell, were prepared. We adapted(More)