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Transcription of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Notch signaling molecules oscillates with 2-hour cycles, and this oscillation is important for coordinated somite segmentation. However, the molecular mechanism of such oscillation remains to be determined. Here, we show that serum treatment of cultured cells induces cyclic expression of both mRNA and protein of(More)
To investigate the relationship between cellular microelasticity and the structural features of cytoskeletons (CSKs), a microindentation test for apical cell membranes and observation of the spatio-distribution of actin CSKs of fibroblasts were performed by fluorescence and atomic force microscopy (FM/AFM). The indentation depths of apical cell membranes(More)
A crucial step in the formation of proto-cells should be the encapsulation of macromolecules such as DNA, involving their separation from the external environment by " primitive " membranes. In this context of the origin of life, the encapsulation of DNA by lipid vesicles has been reported on by several authors. For example, Jay and Gilbert reported that(More)
Spontaneous collective motion, as in some flocks of bird and schools of fish, is an example of an emergent phenomenon. Such phenomena are at present of great interest and physicists have put forward a number of theoretical results that so far lack experimental verification. In animal behaviour studies, large-scale data collection is now technologically(More)
The effect of a stationary electric field on a water droplet with a diameter of several tens micrometers in oil was examined. Such a droplet exhibits repetitive translational motion between the electrodes in a spontaneous manner. The state diagram of this oscillatory motion was deduced; at 0-20 V the droplet is fixed at the surface of the electrode, at(More)
Spontaneous motion of an oil droplet driven by nonequilibrium chemical conditions is reported. It is shown that the droplet undergoes regular rhythmic motion under appropriately designed boundary conditions, whereas it exhibits random motion in an isotropic environment. This study is a novel manifestation on the direct energy transformation of chemical(More)