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Transcription of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Notch signaling molecules oscillates with 2-hour cycles, and this oscillation is important for coordinated somite segmentation. However, the molecular mechanism of such oscillation remains to be determined. Here, we show that serum treatment of cultured cells induces cyclic expression of both mRNA and protein of(More)
Notch signaling components such as the basic helix-loop-helix gene Hes1 are cyclically expressed by negative feedback in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and constitute the somite segmentation clock. Because Hes1 oscillation occurs in many cell types, this clock may regulate the timing in many biological systems. Although the Hes1 oscillator is stable in the(More)
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural anionic mucopolysaccharide, can be deposited onto the cationic surface of DNA/polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes to recharge the surface potential and reduce nonspecific interactions with proteins. HA can also be used as a ligand to target specific cell receptors. Furthermore, HA-coating enhanced the transcriptional activity(More)
This paper theoretically and qualitatively describes the calling behavior of the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica with a simple model of phase oscillators. Experimental analysis showed that while an isolated single male frog called nearly periodically, two interacting male frogs called periodically but alternately, with little overlap. We model these(More)
Serum response has been used as a model for studying signaling transduction for many biological events such as cell proliferation and survival. Although expression of many genes is up- or down-regulated after serum stimulation, the Notch effector Hes1 displays oscillatory response. However, the precise mechanism and biological significance of this(More)
We report a method for the successful reconstitution of the KcsA potassium channel with either an outside-out or inside-out orientation in giant unilamellar vesicles, using the droplet-transfer technique. The procedure is rather simple. First, we prepared water-in-oil droplets lined with a lipid monolayer. When solubilized KcsA was encapsulated in the(More)
Functional protein synthesis was observed in cell-sized lipid vesicles following encapsulation of a gene-expression system. Expression of rsGFP (red-shifted green fluorescent protein) within individual vesicles was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, at the early stage of the reaction, the expression efficiency inside the vesicle was(More)
Spontaneous collective motion, as in some flocks of bird and schools of fish, is an example of an emergent phenomenon. Such phenomena are at present of great interest and physicists have put forward a number of theoretical results that so far lack experimental verification. In animal behaviour studies, large-scale data collection is now technologically(More)
Fluorescence microscopic observation of individual T4 DNA molecules revealed that the MukBEF complex (bacterial condensin) and its subunit, the MukB (a member of the SMC [structural maintenance of chromosomes] superfamily) homodimer, of Escherichia coli markedly shrunk large DNA molecules in the presence of hydrolyzable ATP. In contrast, in the presence of(More)