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A crucial step in the formation of proto-cells should be the encapsulation of macromolecules such as DNA, involving their separation from the external environment by " primitive " membranes. In this context of the origin of life, the encapsulation of DNA by lipid vesicles has been reported on by several authors. For example, Jay and Gilbert reported that(More)
Nucleosome is a fundamental structural unit of chromatin, and the exposure from or occlusion into chromatin of genomic DNA is closely related to the regulation of gene expression. In this study, we analyzed the molecular dynamics of poly-nucleosomal arrays in solution by fast-scanning atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain a visual glimpse of nucleosome(More)
Oscillations are ubiquitous phenomena in biological systems. Conventional models of biological periodic oscillations usually invoke interconnecting transcriptional feedback loops. Some specific proteins function as transcription factors, which in turn negatively regulate the expression of the genes that encode these "clock proteins." These loops may lead to(More)
Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using(More)
By observing reconstituted chromatin by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and atomic force mi-croscopy (AFM), we found that the density of nucleosomes exhibits a bimodal profile, i.e., there is a large transition between the dense and dispersed states in reconstituted chromatin. Based on an analysis of the spatial distribution of nucleosome cores, we deduced an(More)