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Although motor imagery enhances the excitability of the corticospinal tract, there are no peripheral afferent inputs during motor imagery. In contrast, peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (ES) can induce peripheral afferent inputs; thus, a combination of motor imagery and ES may enhance the excitability of the corticospinal tract compared with motor(More)
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether the performance of a combination of observation and motor imagery of chopstick use (complex task) increased corticospinal excitability more than the performance of observation alone. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 10 healthy subjects with no history of neurological diseases. Corticospinal(More)
Evidence has been accumulated that glioblastoma cells release and exploit glutamate for proliferation and migration by autocrine or paracrine loops through Ca2+-permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Here, we show that Ca2+ signaling mediated by AMPA receptor regulates the growth and motility of glioblastoma cells via activation of Akt. Ca2+ supplied(More)
To investigate whether the early effects of voluntary teeth clenching (VTC) among the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles are differently modulated depending on their muscle properties, we examined the responses of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic(More)
This article investigates whether or not mirror therapy alters the neural mechanisms in human motor cortex. Six healthy volunteers participated. The study investigated the effects of three main factors of mirror therapy (observation of hand movements in a mirror, motor imagery of an assumed affected hand, and assistance in exercising the assumed affected(More)
In order to examine the effects of remote facilitation on cortical and spinal sites, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and H-reflexes from the flexor carpi radialis muscle of 13 healthy subjects. The H-reflex was used to assess excitability changes at the spinal level, while the MEP following transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to study(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the intracortical inhibitory (ICI) and facilitatory (ICF) circuits in the primary motor cortex between the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles are modulated differently. METHODS We conducted paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in combination with different current directions(More)
While previous studies have assessed changes in corticospinal excitability following voluntary contraction coupled with electrical stimulation (ES), we sought to examine, for the first time in the field, real-time changes in corticospinal excitability. We monitored motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and recorded the(More)
Using the technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a figure-of-eight-shaped coil in 16 normal volunteers, we studied the extents of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by remote facilitation of voluntary teeth clenching (VTC) and by motor imagery (MI). In particular, we examined whether different excitability changes in the primary motor(More)
Various walk supporting systems have been devised and developed. However, they have not been designed for supporting or evaluating the gait of parkinsonian patients, and not much consideration has been given to gait disturbances of parkinsonian patients. In this study: (a) We prepared a tentative model of walk supporting and monitoring system in(More)