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Aquaporins (AQPs ) are a family of transmembrane proteins present in almost all species including virus. They are grossly divided into three subfamilies based on the sequence around a highly conserved pore-forming NPA motif: (1) classical water -selective AQP (CAQP), (2) glycerol -permeable aquaglyceroporin (AQGP) and (3) AQP super-gene channel,(More)
NMO-IgG, a disease-specific autoantibody for neuromyelitis optica, recognizes aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and has been examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-AQP4 antibodies by establishing methods for expression in a baculovirus system and purification of recombinant AQP4 as antigen.(More)
Aquaporin-11 (AQP11), a new member of the aquaporin family, is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Aqp11(-/-) mice neonatally suffer from polycystic kidneys derived from the proximal tubule. Its onset is proceeded by the vacuolization of ER. However, the mechanism for the formation of vacuoles and cysts remains to be clarified. Here, we show that(More)
Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway leading to decreased renal function. No therapy has been established to prevent it. In order to establish a therapeutic approach and target molecule for renal fibrosis, we investigated the effects of Smad4 knockdown by siRNAs on renal fibrosis in vivo. Renal fibrosis mice were produced by single intraperitoneal(More)
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal epithelial cells (RTECs) has pivotal roles in the development of renal fibrosis. Although the interaction of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on leukocytes and its ligand, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), plays essential roles in most inflammatory reactions, its pathogenetic(More)
Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is an intracellular aquaporin expressed in various tissues, including brain tissues in mammals. While AQP11-deficient mice have developed fatal polycystic kidneys at one month old, the role of AQP11 in the brain was not well appreciated. In this study, we examined the AQP11 expression in the mouse brain and the brain phenotype of(More)
Aquaporin-2, a member of the aquaporin family, is an arginine vasopressin-regulated water channel expressed in the renal collecting duct, and a promising marker of the concentrating and diluting ability of the kidney. The arginine vasopressin type-2 antagonist, tolvaptan, is a new-generation diuretic; it is especially indicated in patients with(More)
BACKGROUND The appropriate exercise counseling for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is crucial to improve their prognosis. There have been few studies about exercise counseling by primary care physicians for CKD patients. We investigated primary care physicians' exercise counseling practices for CKD patients, and the association of these physicians'(More)