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The Wnt/β-catenin signaling system plays essential roles in embryonic development and in the self-renewal and maintenance of adult stem cells. R-spondins (RSPOs) are a group of secreted proteins that enhance Wnt/β-catenin signaling and have pleiotropic functions in development and stem cell growth. LGR5, an orphan receptor of the G protein-coupled receptor(More)
R-spondins (RSPOs) and their receptor leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) play pleiotropic roles in normal and cancer development as well as the survival of adult stem cells through potentiation of Wnt signaling. Current evidence indicates that RSPO-LGR4 functions to elevate levels of Wnt receptors through direct inhibition of(More)
In the endometrium, hormonal effects on epithelial cells are often elicited through stromal hormone receptors via unknown paracrine mechanisms. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that Wnts participate in stromal-epithelial cell communication. Wnt7a is expressed in the luminal epithelium, whereas the extracellular modulator of Wnt signaling,(More)
LGR5, a seven-transmembrane domain receptor of the rhodopsin family, is a Wnt target gene and a bona fide marker of adult stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract and hair follicle bulge. Recently, we and others demonstrated that LGR5 and its homologues function as receptors of the R-spondin family of stem cell factors to potentiate Wnt/β-catenin signaling.(More)
Wnts are secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins that carry out various signaling functions during development and in adult tissue. Wnt signaling is mediated by frizzled receptors (Fzds) at the cell surface and can be modulated by the secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) and other molecular antagonists. Abnormal Wnt signaling has been implicated in(More)
BACKGROUND LGR6 (leucine-rich repeat containing, G protein-coupled receptor 6) is a member of the rhodopsin-like seven transmembrane domain receptor superfamily with the highest homology to LGR4 and LGR5. LGR6 was found as one of the novel genes mutated in colon cancer through total exon sequencing and its promoter region is hypermethylated in 20-50% of(More)
Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that regulate important cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate. In the beta-catenin/canonical pathway, Wnt interacts with Fzd receptors to inhibit degradation of beta-catenin and promote its translocation into the nucleus where it regulates transcription of a number of genes. Dysregulation(More)
The four R-spondins (RSPO1-4) and their three related receptors LGR4, 5 and 6 (LGR4-6) have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival through modulation of Wnt signaling. Recurrent, gain-of-expression gene fusions of RSPO2 (to EIF3E) and RSPO3 (to PTPRK) occur in a subset of human colorectal cancer.(More)
This article describes a biosensor that detects estrogenic substances using a quartz crystal microbalance with a genetically engineered construct of the hormone-binding domain of the alpha-estrogen receptor. The receptor was immobilized to a piezoelectric quartz crystal via a single exposed cysteine, forming a uniform orientation on the crystal surface. Our(More)
Gastrointestinal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women worldwide. The adult stem cell marker LGR5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing, G protein-coupled receptor 5) is highly expressed in a significant fraction of gastrointestinal tumors of the colon, liver, pancreas, and stomach, relative to normal tissues. LGR5 is(More)