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Deposits of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in neuritic plaques and cerebral vessels are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Fibrillar Abeta deposits are closely associated with inflammatory responses such as activated microglia in brain with this disease. Increasing lines of evidence support the hypothesis that activated microglia, innate immune(More)
OBJECTIVE Normal aging is often associated with a decline in learning and memory functions. This decline is manifested to a much greater extent in Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have indicated statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease. Our objective was to determine whether administering a statin(More)
BACKGROUND Amyloid plaques, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are accompanied by activated microglia. The role of activated microglia in the pathogenesis of AD remains controversial: either clearing Aβ deposits by phagocytosis or releasing proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic substances. Microglia can be activated via toll-like(More)
The functional consequences of the betaAPP transgene with the Swedish mutation in mice were assessed in tests of exploratory activity and motor coordination. The betaAPP(695)SWE (Tg2576) transgenic mice are characterized by Abeta plaque formation in the neocortex and hippocampus. By comparison to non-transgenic mice controlled for age and gender,(More)
Bigenic APPswe + PS1/DeltaE9 mice with Abeta plaque formation in neocortex and hippocampus were evaluated in three tests measuring exploratory activity. By comparison to a non-transgenic group controlled for age and gender, 7-month-old APPswe + PS1/DeltaE9 mice spent more time in the open arms and had higher open/total entries and duration in the elevated(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum and seminal plasma contain a small amount of SP-40,40, a modulatory protein of the human complement system. The SP-40,40 in each body fluid was different in molecular size on SDS-PAGE, and glioblastoma cells, hepatoma cells and testicular tumor cells produced SP-40,40, while neuroblastoma cells did not. Therefore, it was(More)
In addition to Abeta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by increased brain levels of APP C-terminal fragments. In the present investigation, the cholinergic innervation in forebrain regions of transgenic mice (Tg13592) expressing the human betaAPP C99 fragment was compared to that of non-transgenic controls by(More)
BACKGROUND Abeta deposits in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are closely associated with innate immune responses such as activated microglia and increased cytokines. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that innate immune/inflammatory responses play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD: either beneficial or harmful effects(More)
Emerging evidence indicates that cholesterol metabolism affects the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LDL receptor (LDLR) is obligatory in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the periphery. To investigate the role of LDLR in the development of AD-like behavior and pathology, Tg2576 mice, a well-characterized transgenic mouse model of AD, with(More)
APP(695)SWE/co+PS1/DeltaE9 mice with Abeta plaques in neocortex and hippocampus were evaluated in tests of exploratory activity and spatial learning. On the initial testing day, 12-month-old APP(695)SWE/co+PS1/DeltaE9 mice spent more time than non-transgenic controls in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. The bigenic group also travelled farther in the(More)