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OBJECTIVE Normal aging is often associated with a decline in learning and memory functions. This decline is manifested to a much greater extent in Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have indicated statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease. Our objective was to determine whether administering a statin(More)
Amyloid plaques, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are accompanied by activated microglia. The role of activated microglia in the pathogenesis of AD remains controversial: either clearing Aβ deposits by phagocytosis or releasing proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic substances. Microglia can be activated via toll-like receptors (TLRs),(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum and seminal plasma contain a small amount of SP-40,40, a modulatory protein of the human complement system. The SP-40,40 in each body fluid was different in molecular size on SDS-PAGE, and glioblastoma cells, hepatoma cells and testicular tumor cells produced SP-40,40, while neuroblastoma cells did not. Therefore, it was(More)
Deposits of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in neuritic plaques and cerebral vessels are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Fibrillar Abeta deposits are closely associated with inflammatory responses such as activated microglia in brain with this disease. Increasing lines of evidence support the hypothesis that activated microglia, innate immune(More)
The accumulation of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) in the brain is thought to be a primary etiologic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fibrillar Aβ plaques, a hallmark of AD abnormality, are closely associated with activated microglia. Activated microglia have contradictory roles in the pathogenesis of AD, being either neuroprotective (by clearing harmful Aβ and(More)
Aβ deposits in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are closely associated with innate immune responses such as activated microglia and increased cytokines. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that innate immune/inflammatory responses play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD: either beneficial or harmful effects on the AD(More)
High fat/high cholesterol diets exacerbate beta-amyloidosis in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been impossible, however, to study the relationship between atherosclerosis and beta-amyloidosis in those models because such mice were on atherosclerosis-resistant genetic backgrounds. Here we report the establishment of AD model mice, B6Tg2576,(More)
In addition to Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by increased brain levels of APP C-terminal fragments. In the present investigation, the cholinergic innervation in forebrain regions of transgenic mice (Tg13592) expressing the human βAPP C99 fragment was compared to that of non-transgenic controls by measuring(More)
The frequency of spontaneous 6-thioguanine (TG)-resistant peripheral blood lymphocytes in five unrelated Werner syndrome (WS) patients was determined using an autoradiographic labeling assay. The average frequency of TG-resistant lymphocytes was eightfold higher in WS patients than in sex- and age-matched normal control donors. This finding and previous(More)
Immunization of mouse models of Alzheimer disease (AD) with amyloid-peptide (Abeta) reduces Abeta deposits and attenuates their memory and learning deficits. Recent clinical trials were halted due to meningoencephalitis, presumably induced by T cell mediated and/or Fc-mediated immune responses. Because injection of anti-Abeta F(ab')(2) antibodies also(More)