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The reduction of the long-term potentiated response induced by tetanus (depotentiation (DP) of LTP) was investigated by the delivery of a train of low-frequency afferent stimuli (depotentiating stimulation: DPS) after the tetanus (100 Hz, 100 pulses) in CA1 neurons of the guinea pig's hippocampal slice. The parameters of DPS (frequencies of 1, 2, 5 and 10(More)
The effects of transient global ischemia using bilateral carotid artery occlusion on regional cytokine levels in gerbil brain were investigated using enzyme-linked immunoassay techniques. Brain concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were increased during the early recirculation(More)
Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Japan (incidence is 0.7-1.2 per 10,000 births), is characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy associated with brain malformation (micropolygria) due to a defect in the migration of neurons. We previously mapped the FCMD gene to a region of less(More)
Neurological dysfunction, seizures and brain atrophy occur in a broad spectrum of acute and chronic neurological diseases. In certain instances, over-stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors has been implicated. Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist synthesized from L-tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway and(More)
Synaptic transmission of the single gene mutant, shibirets1 (shi), of Drosophila melanogaster is reversibly blocked by elevated temperature. The presynaptic mechanism of transmission was studied in the neuromuscular junction of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscle of this mutant. It was observed that when the temperature was raised to 29 degrees C in shi(More)
Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is suggested to play a role in the repair of aged protein spontaneously incorporated with isoaspartyl residues. We generated PIMT-deficient mice by targeted disruption of the PIMT gene to elucidate the biological role of the gene in vivo. PIMT-deficient mice died from progressive epileptic seizures with grand(More)
Inhibitory neurons play important roles in a number of brain functions. They are composed of GABAergic neurons and glycinergic neurons, and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is specifically expressed in these neurons. Since the inhibitory neurons are scattered around in the CNS, it is difficult to identify these cells in living brain preparations. The(More)
The kynurenine pathway metabolites, quinolinic acid (QUIN) and L-kynurenine are convulsants, whereas kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Imbalances in the concentrations of these metabolites have been implicated in the etiology of human seizure disorders. In the present study, L-kynurenine and QUIN concentrations in(More)
Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an neurotoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist and an L-tryptophan metabolite of the kynurenine pathway. Increased concentrations of QUIN occur in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, particularly those with neurologic disturbances. In the present study of(More)