Ken'ichi Nomoto

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Type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars in close binary systems. They play an important role as cosmological distance indicators and have led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Among the most important unsolved questions about supernovae are how the explosion actually proceeds and whether accretion(More)
The chemically most primitive stars provide constraints on the nature of the first stellar objects that formed in the Universe; elements other than hydrogen, helium and traces of lithium present within these objects were generated by nucleosynthesis in the very first stars. The relative abundances of elements in the surviving primitive stars reflect the(More)
Type Ic supernovae, the explosions after the core collapse of massive stars that have previously lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes, are particularly interesting because of their link with long-duration gamma ray bursts. Although indications exist that these explosions are aspherical, direct evidence has been missing. Late-time observations of(More)
The recent discovery of a hyper-metal-poor (HMP) star, with a metallicity Fe/H smaller than 1/100,000 of the solar ratio, together with one earlier HMP star, has raised a challenging question whether these HMP stars are the actual first-generation, low-mass stars of the universe. We argue that these HMP stars are second-generation stars formed from gases(More)
It has been proposed theoretically that the first generation of stars in the Universe (population III) would be as massive as 100 solar masses (100 M(O)), because of inefficient cooling of the precursor gas clouds. Recently, the most iron-deficient (but still carbon-rich) low-mass star--HE0107-5240--was discovered. If this is a population III star that(More)
Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with type Ic supernovae that are more luminous than average and that eject material at very high velocities. Less-luminous supernovae were not hitherto known to be associated with GRBs, and therefore GRB-supernovae were thought to be rare events. Whether X-ray flashes--analogues of GRBs, but with lower(More)
Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) are the explosions that announce the death of massive stars. Some CC-SNe are linked to long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and are highly aspherical. One important question is to what extent asphericity is common to all CC-SNe. Here we present late-time spectra for a number of CC-SNe from stripped-envelope stars and use(More)
The net optical light curves and spectra of the supernova (SN) 2003dh are obtained from the published spectra of GRB 030329, covering about 6 days before SN maximum to about 60 days after. The bulk of the U-band flux is subtracted from the observed spectra using early-time afterglow templates, because strong line blanketing greatly depresses the UV and(More)
XRF 030723 is the first X-ray flash (XRF) to show in its optical light curve (LC) a bump that has been interpreted as the signature of a supernova (SN). After subtracting the afterglow component from the observed optical LC of the XRF counterpart, the properties of the putative SN are constrained by means of synthetic LCs of core-collapse SNe. For the(More)
Supernovae connected with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are hyper-energetic explosions resulting from the collapse of very massive stars ( approximately 40 M\circ, where M\circ is the mass of the Sun) stripped of their outer hydrogen and helium envelopes. A very massive progenitor, collapsing to a black hole, was thought to be a requirement for the(More)