Ken-ichi Isobe

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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Forkhead transcription factor, DAF-16, regulates genes that contribute both to longevity and resistance to various stresses in C. elegans. We and others have reported that members of the FOXO, mammalian homologs of DAF-16, also regulate genes related to stress resistance, such as GADD45. The NAD-dependent protein deacetylase, SIR2, is required for life span(More)
GADD34 is a protein that is induced by stresses such as DNA damage. The function of mammalian GADD34 has been proposed by in vitro transfection, but its function in vivo has not yet been elucidated. Here we generated and analyzed GADD34 knockout mice. Despite their embryonic stage- and tissue-specific expressions, GADD34 knockout mice showed no(More)
In Parkinson's disease, characteristic pathological features are the cell death of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and the formation of Lewy bodies composed of oxidized proteins. Mitochondrial dysfunction and aggregation of abnormal proteins have been proposed to cause the pathological changes. However, the relation between these two factors remains to be(More)
Alteration of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism elicited by proinflammatory cytokines has gained attention as a new concept to explain the etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of major depression. The kynurenine (KYN) pathway, which is initiated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is the main TRP metabolic pathway. It shares TRP with the serotonin(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is one of the best-documented animal models of autoimmune disease. We examined the role of CD8+CD122+ regulatory T cells, which we previously identified as naturally occurring regulatory T cells that effectively regulate CD8+ T cells, in EAE. Depletion of CD8+CD122+ regulatory T cells by in vivo administration(More)
We recently identified CD8+CD122+ regulatory T cells that directly control CD8+ and CD4+ cells without intervention of APCs. In this study, we investigated the effector mechanism of CD8+CD122+ regulatory T cells by using an in vitro regulation system. The profile of cytokine expression revealed that IL-10 was predominantly produced by CD8+CD122+ cells,(More)
STUDY DESIGN The results of staged surgery including vertebral decancellation were reviewed retrospectively for 21 patients with severe scoliosis. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the benefits and limitations of vertebral decancellation as new anterior surgical procedure. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The curvatures of severe scoliosis are often very rigid, and(More)
The role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the survival of dopaminergic neurons has been well documented, but its effect on dopamine biosynthesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, the effect of GDNF on the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine biosynthesis, was investigated. We found(More)
A novel superfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPases includes DOCK180 and zizimin1. The zizimin subfamily includes three genes of which only zizimin1 has been cloned. We report here the cloning of zizimin2, identified in a screen for genes enriched in germinal center B cells. Zizimin2 and zizimin1 have similar primary structures and(More)