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Cyclin E is a mammalian G1 cyclin that is both required and rate limiting for entry into S phase. The expression of cyclin E is periodic, peaking at the G1-S transition and then decaying as S phase progresses. To understand the mechanisms underlying cyclin E periodicity, we have investigated the regulation of cyclin E degradation. We find that cyclin E is(More)
We have isolated two human ubiquitin-like (UbL) proteins that bind to a short peptide within the ATPase domain of the Hsp70-like Stch protein. Chap1 is a duplicated homologue of the yeast Dsk2 gene that is required for transit through the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and expression of the human full-length cDNA restored viability and suppressed the G2/M(More)
Protein folding mediated by the Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones requires both ATP and the co-chaperone Hdj-1. BAG-1 was recently identified as a bcl-2-interacting, anti-apoptotic protein that binds to the ATPase domain of Hsp70 and prevents the release of the substrate. While this suggested that cells had the potential to modulate Hsp70-mediated(More)
Reaper is a potent apoptotic inducer critical for programmed cell death in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. While Reaper homologs from other species have not yet been reported, ectopic expression of Reaper in cells of vertebrate origin can also trigger apoptosis, suggesting that Reaper-responsive pathways are likely to be conserved. We recently reported(More)
Reaper is a central regulator of apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. With no obvious catalytic activity or homology to other known apoptotic regulators, reaper's mechanism of action has been obscure. We recently reported that recombinant Drosophila reaper protein induced rapid mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase activation and apoptotic nuclear(More)
BACKGROUND TrkB expression is associated with poor prognosis for patients with neuroblastoma. AZ623 is a novel potent and selective inhibitor of the Trk family of tyrosine kinases. The authors hypothesized that AZ623 would inhibit TrkB-mediated signaling in neuroblastoma tumor cells and would be synergistic when combined with chemotherapy. METHODS(More)
In the past few years, it has become widely appreciated that apoptotic cell death generally involves activation of a family of proteases, the caspases, which undermine the integrity of the cell by cleavage of critical intracellular substrates. Caspases, which are synthesized as inactive zymogens, are themselves caspase substrates and this cleavage leads to(More)
The design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 4-aminopyrazolylpyrimidines as potent Trk kinase inhibitors is reported. High-throughput screening identified a promising hit in the 4-aminopyrazolylpyrimidine chemotype. Initial optimization of the series led to more potent Trk inhibitors. Further optimization using two strategies resulted in(More)
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