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Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1 was recently identified as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase which activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase pathways and is required for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced apoptosis; however, the mechanism regulating ASK1 activity is unknown. Through genetic(More)
Recognition of pathogens is mediated by a set of germline-encoded receptors that are referred to as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors recognize conserved molecular patterns (pathogen-associated molecular patterns), which are shared by large groups of microorganisms. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as the PRRs in mammals and play an(More)
MyD88 is a general adaptor protein that plays an important role in the Toll/IL-1 receptor family signalings. Recently, Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) have been suggested to be the signaling receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we demonstrate that MyD88 knockout mice lack the ability to respond to LPS as measured by shock(More)
The human homologue of Drosophila Toll (hToll), also called Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), is a recently cloned receptor of the IL-1/Toll receptor family. Interestingly, the TLR4 gene has been localized to the same region to which the Lps locus (endotoxin unresponsive gene locus) is mapped. To examine the role of TLR4 in LPS responsiveness, we have generated(More)
A high-resolution transcript linkage map of barley was created using a single doubled haploid (DH) mapping population, only 3'-end expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and only PCR-based assays. Cultivar 'Haruna Nijo' and an ancestral wild-form accession 'H602' were used as EST donors and crossing parents of the mapping population. Of the 10,366 primer sets(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are implicated in the recognition of various bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice. In contrast to LPS unresponsiveness in TLR4-deficient mice, TLR2-deficient mice responded to LPS to the same extent as wild-type mice.(More)
MyD88, originally isolated as a myeloid differentiation primary response gene, is shown to act as an adaptor in interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling by interacting with both the IL-1 receptor complex and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK). Mice generated by gene targeting to lack MyD88 have defects in T cell proliferation as well as induction of acute phase(More)
Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) trigger immune responses via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and their immunostimulatory properties are attributed to the presence of a lipoylated N-terminus. Most BLP are triacylated at the N-terminus cysteine residue, but mycoplasmal macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 kD (MALP-2) is only diacylated. Here we show that(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1 is activated in response to various cytotoxic stresses including TNF, Fas and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H(2)O(2), and activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. However, the roles of JNK and p38 signaling pathways during apoptosis have been controversial. Here we show that by deleting ASK1 in(More)