Ken Takahashi

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Type I interferons are central mediators for antiviral responses. Using high-throughput functional screening of interferon inducers, we have identified here a molecule we call interferon-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1). Overexpression of IPS-1 induced type I interferon and interferon-inducible genes through activation of IRF3, IRF7 and NF-κB transcription(More)
The innate immune system recognizes nucleic acids during infection or tissue damage; however, the mechanisms of intracellular recognition of DNA have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that intracellular administration of double-stranded B-form DNA (B-DNA) triggered antiviral responses including production of type I interferons and chemokines(More)
The fast and slow components of global warming in a comprehensive climate model are isolated by examining the response to an instantaneous return to pre-industrial forcing. The response is characterized by an initial fast exponential decay with an e-folding time smaller than 5 years, leaving behind a remnant that evolves more slowly. The slow component is(More)
BACKGROUND Observations of adverse developmental and reproductive effects in laboratory animals and wildlife have fueled increasing public concern regarding the potential for various chemicals to impair human fertility. OBJECTIVE Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to high levels of phthalate esters on the balance(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that infects >170 million people worldwide and causes acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite its ability to block the innate host response in infected hepatocyte cell lines in vitro, HCV induces a strong type 1(More)
IFN-beta promoter stimulator (IPS)-1 was recently identified as an adapter for retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (Mda5), which recognize distinct RNA viruses. Here we show the critical role of IPS-1 in antiviral responses in vivo. IPS-1-deficient mice showed severe defects in both RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated(More)
Upon viral infection, host cells trigger antiviral immune responses by inducing type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines. dsRNA generated during viral replication is recognized by the cytoplasmic RNA helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, which interact with an adaptor, IFN-beta promoter stimulator-1, to(More)
This article proposes a modification to the standard forcing–feedback diagnostic energy balance model to account for 1) differences between effective and equilibrium climate sensitivities and 2) the variation of effective sensitivity over time in climate change experiments with coupled atmosphere–ocean climate models. In the spirit of Hansen et al. an(More)
OBJECTIVE To carry out a descriptive analysis of mesothelioma deaths reported worldwide between 1994 and 2008. METHODS We extracted data on mesothelioma deaths reported to the World Health Organization mortality database since 1994, when the disease was first recorded. We also sought information from other English-language sources. Crude and age-adjusted(More)
Importance Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990(More)