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Apoptosis has been identified as a mechanism of pancreatic islet beta-cell death in autoimmune diabetes. Proinflammatory cytokines are candidate mediators of beta-cell death in autoimmune diabetes, and these cytokines can induce beta-cell death by apoptosis. In the present study, we examined whether transfection of human islet beta-cells with an(More)
The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and interferon gamma (IFNgamma), are cytotoxic to pancreatic islet beta cells, possibly by inducing nitric oxide and/or oxygen radical production in the beta cells. Peroxynitrite, the reaction product of nitric oxide and the superoxide radical, is a strong(More)
The inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma are cytotoxic to human islet beta-cells in vitro. To determine the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of cytokine-induced islet beta-cell destruction, we studied the relationships between NO production and destruction of human pancreatic islet(More)
OBJECTIVE The acute release of radicals upon reperfusion following myocardial ischemia may include both nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O2-.). The generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) from these radicals may contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our objective was to measure the generation of ONOO- during reperfusion of isolated hearts subjected(More)
Cytokines produced by immune system cells infiltrating pancreatic islets are candidate mediators of islet beta-cell destruction in autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Cytokine-induced islet beta-cell destruction may be mediated by reactive oxygen intermediates. To determine the possible roles of oxygen free radicals and nitric oxide (NO) as(More)
Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a highly reactive oxidant produced by the interaction of the free radicals superoxide (O*-2) and nitric oxide (NO(*)). In a previous study, we found that peroxynitrite is formed in islet beta-cells of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Here, we report that guanidinoethyldisulphide (GED), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide(More)
Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes combine in ALR/Lt mice to produce systemically elevated defenses against free radical damage, rendering these mice resistant to immune-mediated pancreatic islet destruction. We analyzed the mechanism whereby isolated islets from ALR mice resisted proinflammatory stress mediated by combined cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha,(More)
Cytokines produced by immune system cells that infiltrate pancreatic islets are candidate mediators of islet beta-cell destruction in autoimmune (type 1) diabetes mellitus. Because the calcium binding protein, calbindin-D(28k), can prevent apoptotic cell death in different cell types, we investigated the possibility that calbindin-D(28k) may prevent(More)
Hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism has recently been implicated in the controls of food intake and energy homeostasis. We report that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of leptin, concomitant with inhibiting AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), activates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the key regulatory enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, in the arcuate nucleus(More)