Ken Shinmura

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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is known to mediate the cardioprotective effects of the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC); however, the signaling pathways involved in COX-2 induction following ischemic PC are unknown. In addition, although inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been identified as a co-mediator of late PC together with COX-2, the(More)
More than 10 years after its discovery, the function of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the cardiovascular system remains largely an enigma. Many scholars have assumed that the allegedly detrimental effects of COX-2 in other systems (e.g. proinflammatory actions and tumorigenesis) signify a detrimental role of this protein in cardiovascular homeostasis as well.(More)
Aldose reductase (AR), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, has been shown to metabolize toxic aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation, suggesting that it may serve as an antioxidant defense. To investigate its role in the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC), conscious rabbits underwent 6 cycles of 4-minute coronary occlusion/4-minute(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an essential mediator of the cardioprotective effects of the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC) in rabbits. The goal of this study was to determine whether COX-2 also plays an essential role in late PC in the mouse. B6129F2/J mice underwent a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 24(More)
BACKGROUND Although NO has been shown to serve both as the trigger and the mediator of the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC), it is unknown whether NO acts via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of sGC in late PC in conscious rabbits using the selective sGC inhibitor(More)
Opioids confer biphasic (early and late) cardioprotection against myocardial infarction by opening mitochondrial K ATP channels. It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which mediates ischemia-induced late preconditioning, also mediates opioid-induced cardioprotection. Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 20 min of global ischemia followed(More)
BACKGROUND Left ventricular (LV) remodeling leads to chronic heart failure and is a main determinant of morbidity and mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). At the present time, therapeutic options to prevent LV remodeling are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS We created a large MI by permanent ligation of the coronary artery and identified a potential(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) and the adenosine A3 receptor agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) produce a delayed phase of protection against infarction similar to the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC). However, the mechanism for(More)
Although previous studies suggested that the protection of late preconditioning (PC) against myocardial stunning is mediated by nitric oxide (NO), direct evidence that exogenous administration of NO attenuates myocardial stunning is lacking. Furthermore, although exogenous NO administration was shown to elicit a late PC phase, it is unknown whether NO(More)
AIMS The aims of this study were to determine whether chronic oestrogen withdrawal influences the development of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) in female hearts, to investigate the mechanism whereby IPC is impaired, and to assess whether direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) can mimic IPC in female hearts with chronic oestrogen depletion. METHODS(More)