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Mammalian cells proteolytically release (shed) the extracellular domains of many cell-surface proteins. Modification of the cell surface in this way can alter the cell's responsiveness to its environment and release potent soluble regulatory factors. The release of soluble tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from its membrane-bound precursor is one of(More)
A novel tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member has been cloned and characterized. This protein, designated TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), consists of 281 and 291 aa in the human and murine forms, respectively, which share 65% aa identity. TRAIL is a type II membrane protein, whose C-terminal extracellular domain shows clear homology to(More)
TRAIL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of cytokines and induces apoptosis in a wide variety of cells. Based on homology searching of a private database, a receptor for TRAIL (DR4 or TRAIL-R1) was recently identified. Here we report the identification of a distinct receptor for TRAIL, TRAIL-R2, by ligand-based affinity purification and(More)
Several specific conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1. IL-4 is required for the generation of both primary polyclonal and secondary antigen-specific IgE responses in vivo. 2. IL-4 is required to maintain established, ongoing, antigen-specific and polyclonal IgE responses. 3. Most, but not all, polyclonal IgE production during a secondary immune(More)
The pleiotropic cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is able to promote the growth of mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) in culture. It is unclear whether LIF acts directly on PGCs or indirectly via feeder cells or embryonic somatic cells. To understand the role of LIF in PGC growth, we have carried out molecular and cell culture analyses to(More)
In fibroblasts and hepatoma cells, interleukin-1 (IL-1) treatment results in the rapid nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, present largely as p65 (RelA)/p50 heterodimers. It is well established that this process is dependent in large part upon the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of the cytosolic inhibitor IkappaB. We(More)
We previously demonstrated that when platelets are in motion and in proximity to endothelial cells, they become unresponsive to agonists (Marcus, A.J., L.B. Safier, K.A. Hajjar, H.L. Ullman, N. Islam, M.J. Broekman, and A.M. Eiroa. 1991. J. Clin. Invest. 88:1690-1696). This inhibition is due to an ecto-ADPase on the surface of endothelial cells which(More)
TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that human CD11c(+) blood dendritic cells (DCs) express TRAIL after stimulation with either interferon (IFN)-gamma or -alpha and acquire the ability to kill TRAIL-sensitive tumor cell targets but not(More)
A significant proportion of previously activated human T cells undergo apoptosis when triggered through the CD3/T cell receptor complex, a process termed activation-induced cell death (AICD). Ligation of Fas on activated T cells by either Fas antibodies or recombinant human Fas-ligand (Fas-L) also results in cytolysis. We demonstrate that these two pathways(More)
The Mpl receptor (Mpl-R) is a cytokine receptor belonging to the hematopoietin receptor superfamily for which a ligand has been recently characterized. To study the lineage distribution of Mpl-R in normal hematopoietic cells, we developed a monoclonal antibody (designated M1 MoAb) by immunizing mice with a soluble form of the human Mpl-R protein. With few(More)