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The actin cytoskeleton undergoes extensive remodeling during cell morphogenesis and motility. The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho regulates such remodeling, but the underlying mechanisms of this regulation remain unclear. Cofilin exhibits actin-depolymerizing activity that is inhibited as a result of its phosphorylation by LIM-kinase. Cofilin was(More)
Rac is a small GTPase of the Rho family that mediates stimulus-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization to generate lamellipodia. Little is known about the signalling pathways that link Rac activation to changes in actin filament dynamics. Cofilin is known to be a potent regulator of actin filament dynamics, and its ability to bind and depolymerize actin(More)
Semaphorin 3A is a chemorepulsive axonal guidance molecule that depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton and collapses growth cones of dorsal root ganglia neurons. Here we investigate the role of LIM-kinase 1, which phosphorylates an actin-depolymerizing protein, cofilin, in semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse. Semaphorin 3A induced phosphorylation and(More)
Mammalian LIM-kinases (LIMKs) phosphorylate cofilin and induce actin cytoskeletal reorganization. To elucidate the functional roles of LIMKs in vivo during developmental processes, we attempted to isolate the cDNA encoding a Drosophila homolog of LIMK (DLIMK) and identified two isoforms of DLIMK transcripts coding for proteins with 1235 and 1257 amino(More)
Atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is a common complication of the insulin resistance syndrome that can occur with or without diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agents, can modulate the development of atherosclerosis not only by changing the systemic metabolic conditions associated with insulin(More)
In an attempt to identify transcription factors which activate sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) transcription, we screened an expression cDNA library from adipose tissue of SREBP-1 knockout mice using a reporter gene containing the 2.6-kb mouse SREBP-1 gene promoter. We cloned and identified the oxysterol receptors liver X receptor(More)
In an earlier study connectin, an elastic protein of striated muscle, was found to be associated with "gap filaments" originating from the thick filaments in the myofibril, but it was not clear whether it extends to Z lines or not (Maruyama, K., H. Sawada, S. Kimura, K. Ohashi, H. Higuchi, and Y. Umazume, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:1391-1397). In the present(More)
The mammalian enzyme involved in the final elongation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis following the building of fatty acids to 16 carbons by fatty acid synthase has yet to be identified. In the process of searching for genes activated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) by using DNA microarray, we identified and characterized a(More)
Carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes may have particularly interesting roles in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, because this social insect has an extremely carbohydrate-rich diet, and nutrition plays important roles in caste determination and socially mediated behavioural plasticity. We annotated a total of 174 genes encoding carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes(More)
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c is now well established as a key transcription factor for the regulation of lipogenic enzyme genes such as FAS in hepatocytes. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of lipogenic gene regulation in adipocytes remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that those in adipocytes are independent of SREBP-1c. In adipocytes,(More)