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Currently the protein mutant database (PMD) contains over 81 000 mutants, including artificial as well as natural mutants of various proteins extracted from about 10 000 articles. We recently developed a powerful viewing and retrieving system (http://pmd.ddbj.nig.ac.jp), which is integrated with the sequence and tertiary structure databases. The system has(More)
The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene(More)
Fast synaptic neurotransmission is mediated by ligand-gated ion-channel (LGIC) receptors, which include receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, glycine, and glutamate. LGICs are pentamers with extracellular ligand-binding domains and form integral membrane ion channels that are selective for cations (acetylcholine and serotonin 5HT3 receptors) or(More)
REVIEW REVIEW The common view is that functional proteins or protein domains have unique and stable 3D structures characterized by the relatively fixed positions of their atoms and backbone Ramachandran angles that both vary slightly around their equilibrium positions due to low-amplitude thermal fluctuations. In addition there is another class of(More)
Classication of proteins into groups is a rst step to grasp the characteristics of sequences. There are many ways to classify proteins, e.g., in terms of purication procedure, component, function, structure and other criteria. Proteins are classied into "families" in the PIR database according to the degree of similarity in amino acid sequences. If classied(More)
Large-scale genome projects generate an unprecedented number of protein sequences, most of them are experimentally uncharacterized. Predicting the 3D structures of sequences provides important clues as to their functions. We constructed the Genomes TO Protein structures and functions (GTOP) database, containing protein fold predictions of a huge number of(More)
BACKGROUND Although structural domains in proteins (SDs) are important, half of the regions in the human proteome are currently left with no SD assignments. These unassigned regions consist not only of novel SDs, but also of intrinsically disordered (ID) regions since proteins, especially those in eukaryotes, generally contain a significant fraction of ID(More)
The pattern of amino acid substitutions and sequence conservation over many structure-based alignments of protein sequences was analyzed as a function of percentage sequence identity. The statistics of the amino acid substitutions were converted into the form of log-odds amino acid substitution matrices to which eigenvalue decomposition was applied. It was(More)
BACKGROUND One-dimensional protein structures such as secondary structures or contact numbers are useful for three-dimensional structure prediction and helpful for intuitive understanding of the sequence-structure relationship. Accurate prediction methods will serve as a basis for these and other purposes. RESULTS We implemented a program CRNPRED which(More)
One-dimensional (1D) structures of proteins such as secondary structure and contact number provide intuitive pictures to understand how the native three-dimensional (3D) structure of a protein is encoded in the amino acid sequence. However, it is still not clear whether a given set of 1D structures contains sufficient information for recovering the(More)