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We cloned the genes for the mouse homologue of the neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R) and the bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3). Both receptor genes consist of three exons with well-conserved intron-exon borders. Although the NMB-R gene spans more than 10 kb, the BRS-3 gene spans only about 4 kb. Comparison of the mouse and human receptor sequences indicates(More)
The effects of oral administration of the centrally acting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil: E2020: (+/-)-2-[(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-indan-1-one monohydrochloride), tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine hydrochloride) and ENA-713 (rivastigmine:(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia is one of the most common neurological disorders. However, few therapeutics are effective for the treatment of this disorder. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of d-serine ethylester and a related substance, d-cycloserine, as therapeutic agents for ataxia in a murine model. Both compounds are known to stereospecific(More)
Changes in immunoreactive somatostatin (SOM) and cholecystokinin (CCK-8) levels in the cerebellum and cerebrum were investigated in three types of genetically-determined ataxic mutant mice: rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN), weaver, and Purkinje cell degeneration (PCD) mice. The cerebellar pathology in each of these types differs. The concentration of both SOM and(More)
By a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay we measured the level of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the cerebellum and cerebrum of the neurologically mutant mice, weaver, reeler and Purkinje cell degeneration (PCD). A significant decrease in NGF level was observed in both cerebellum and cerebrum of weaver and reeler mutants of either sex. However, there was no(More)
The gracile axonal dystrophy (gad) mouse, which shows hereditary sensory ataxia and motor paresis, has been morphologically characterized by the dying back type of axonal degeneration in the nerve terminals of dorsal root ganglion cells and motor neurons. In the present study, using an intraspecific backcross between gad and C57BL/6J mice, the gracile(More)
We investigated the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the cerebellar motor function, by measuring nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities and cGMP in the cerebellum using two lines of mutant mice having motor dysfunction, Staggerer (SG) and Wriggle Mouse Sagami (WMS). In SG, the NOS activity per cerebellum was reduced to 5.8% of that of the(More)
In order to investigate the physiological role of the brain renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of vasopressin (ADH) release, angiotensin II (Ang II, 10 ng/kg/min) or 1-Sar-8-Ile-Ang II (50 ng/kg/min), an Ang II antagonist, was administered intracerebroventricularly to dogs (n = 42) anesthetized with urethane and chloralose after morphine sedation.(More)
Pulsed magnetic stimulation of the human brain and spinal region has been reported recently. Unlike electrical stimulation, magnetic stimulation excites the motor cortex without discomfort to the subject. This method will be used as a new clinical test to study the central motor pathway. Although no deleterious effects have been observed thus far, the(More)
Through the interaction of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and B cells, efficacious vaccines can generate high-affinity, pathogen-neutralizing antibodies, and memory B cells. Using CXCR5, CXCR3, CCR6, CCR7, PD1, and ICOS as markers, Tfh-like cells can be identified in the circulation and be classified into three functionally distinct subsets that are(More)