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Measles virus (MV) is highly infectious, and has long been thought to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. However, epithelial cells do not express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (CD150), which is the high-affinity cellular receptor for wild-type MV strains. We have generated a new recombinant MV strain expressing(More)
The global increase in measles vaccination has resulted in a significant reduction of measles mortality. The standard route of administration for the live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine is subcutaneous injection, although alternative needle-free routes, including aerosol delivery, are under investigation. In vitro, attenuated MV has a much wider(More)
Mumps virus, like other paramyxoviruses in the Rubulavirus genus, encodes a V protein that can assemble a ubiquitin ligase complex from cellular components, leading to the destruction of cellular signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. While many V proteins target the interferon-activated STAT1 or STAT2 protein, mumps virus V(More)
Prior to the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines, mumps virus (MuV) was the leading cause of virus-induced meningitis. Although vaccination has been effective at controlling the disease, the use of insufficiently attenuated strains has been associated with high rates of aseptic meningitis in vaccinees. The molecular basis of MuV attenuation is poorly(More)
The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide 3G; A3G) exerts antiviral activity against retroviruses, hepatitis B virus, adeno-associated virus and transposable elements. We assessed whether the negative-strand RNA viruses measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial might be affected by A3G, and found that their(More)
Mumps virus (MuV) is highly neurotropic and was the leading cause of aseptic meningitis in the Western Hemisphere prior to widespread use of live attenuated MuV vaccines. Due to the absence of markers of virus neuroattenuation and neurovirulence, ensuring mumps vaccine safety has proven problematic, as demonstrated by the occurrence of aseptic meningitis in(More)
Paramyxoviruses, including measles virus (MV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), are transmitted via the respiratory route. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, the pathogenesis of these viruses is very different. To study viral tropism and replication ex vivo, a protocol for(More)
Although the Enders strain of mumps virus (MuV) encodes a functional V protein that acts as an interferon (IFN) antagonist, in multi-cycle growth assays MuV Enders grew poorly in naïve ('IFN-competent' Hep2) cells but grew to high titres in 'IFN-compromised' Hep2 cells. Even so, the growth rate of MuV Enders was significantly slower in 'IFN-compromised'(More)
Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. MV is spread by aerosols but the mechanism(s) responsible for the high transmissibility of MV are largely unknown. We previously infected macaques with enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing recombinant MV and(More)
UNLABELLED Although live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have been used successfully for over 50 years, the target cells that sustain virus replication in vivo are still unknown. We generated a reverse genetics system for the live-attenuated MV vaccine strain Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ), allowing recovery of recombinant (r)MV(EZ). Three recombinant viruses(More)