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DNA from bacteria has stimulatory effects on mammalian immune cells, which depend on the presence of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in the bacterial DNA. In contrast, mammalian DNA has a low frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and these are mostly methylated; therefore, mammalian DNA does not have immuno-stimulatory activity. CpG DNA induces a strong(More)
The human homologue of Drosophila Toll (hToll), also called Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), is a recently cloned receptor of the IL-1/Toll receptor family. Interestingly, the TLR4 gene has been localized to the same region to which the Lps locus (endotoxin unresponsive gene locus) is mapped. To examine the role of TLR4 in LPS responsiveness, we have generated(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are implicated in the recognition of various bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice. In contrast to LPS unresponsiveness in TLR4-deficient mice, TLR2-deficient mice responded to LPS to the same extent as wild-type mice.(More)
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, a member of the TLR family that participates in pathogen recognition. TLRs recruit a cytoplasmic protein, MyD88, upon pathogen recognition, mediating its function for immune responses. Two major pathways for LPS have been suggested in recent studies,(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) family acts as pattern recognition receptors for pathogen-specific molecular patterns. We previously showed that TLR2 recognizes Gram-positive bacterial components whereas TLR4 recognizes LPS, a component of Gram-negative bacteria. MyD88 is shown to be an adaptor molecule essential for TLR family signaling. To investigate the role(More)
Whole-cell assays were implemented to search for efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) of the three multidrug resistance efflux pumps (MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN) that contribute to fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Secondary assays were developed to identify lead compounds with exquisite activities as inhibitors. A(More)
Mycoplasmas and their membranes are potent activators of macrophages, the active principle being lipoproteins and lipopeptides. Two stereoisomers of the mycoplasmal lipopeptide macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) differing in the configuration of the lipid moiety were synthesized and compared in their macrophage-activating potential, the R-MALP(More)
MyD88 is an adaptor molecule essential for signaling via the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/IL-1 receptor family. TLR4 is a member of the TLR family and a point mutation in the Tlr4 gene causes hyporesponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in C3H/HeJ mice. We have previously shown that both TLR4- and MyD88-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to LPS. In this study(More)
IL-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in natural killer cell activation and T helper 1 (Th1) cell responses. Mast cells and basophils are major inducers and effectors of allergic inflammation. Here we show that basophils and mast cells derived by culture of bone marrow cells with IL-3 for 10 days express IL-18Ralpha chain and that(More)
LPS, a major component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, can induce a variety of biological responses including cytokine production from macrophages, B cell proliferation, and endotoxin shock. All of them were completely abolished in MyD88-deficient mice, indicating the essential role of MyD88 in LPS signaling. However, MyD88-deficient cells still(More)