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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the human digestive tract, but their molecular etiology and cellular origin are unknown. Sequencing of c-kit complementary DNA, which encodes a proto-oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT), from five GISTs revealed mutations in the region between the transmembrane and(More)
Calyculin A and okadaic acid induce contraction in smooth muscle fibers. Okadaic acid is an inhibitor of phosphatase activity and the aims of this study were to determine if calyculin A also inhibits phosphatase and to screen effects of both compounds on various phosphatases. Neither compound inhibited acid or alkaline phosphatases, nor the phosphotyrosine(More)
The spontaneous recessive mutant mouse stargazer (stg) begins to show ataxia around postnatal day 14 and display a severe impairment in the acquisition of classical eyeblink conditioning in adulthood. These abnormalities have been attributed to the specific reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the subsequent defect in TrkB receptor(More)
To study the function of GLAST, a glutamate transporter highly expressed in the cerebellar Bergmann astrocytes, the mouse GLAST gene was inactivated. GLAST-deficient mice developed normally and could manage simple coordinated tasks, such as staying on a stationary or a slowly rotating rod, but failed more challenging task such as staying on a quickly(More)
Climbing fiber (CF) synapse formation onto cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) is critically dependent on the synaptogenesis from parallel fibers (PFs), the other input to PCs. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) gene results in persistent multiple CF innervation of PCs with impaired PF synaptogenesis,(More)
Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of(More)
The mi locus of mice encodes a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) protein family of transcription factors (hereafter called MITF). Cultured mast cells of mi/mi genotype (mi/mi CMCs) did not normally respond to stem cell factor (SCF), a ligand for the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase. The poor response of mi/mi CMCs to SCF was(More)
PKC gamma is highly expressed in Purkinje cells (PCs) but not in other types of neurons in the cerebellum. The expression of PKC gamma changes markedly during cerebellar development, being very low at birth and reaching a peak around the third postnatal week. This temporal pattern of PKC gamma expression coincides with the developmental transition from(More)
Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is a variant of histone H3 with more than 60% sequence identity at the C-terminal histone fold domain. CENP-A specifically locates to active centromeres of animal chromosomes and therefore is believed to be a component of the specialized centromeric nucleosomes on which the kinetochores are assembled. Here we report that(More)
The interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants with subtypes of sigma receptors were investigated. The rank order of affinity (Ki values) from competition experiments of [3H](+)-pentazocine binding to sigma 1 sites was: fluvoxamine > sertraline > S(+)-fluoxetine > (+/-)-fluoxetine > citalopram > imipramine >(More)