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PURPOSE Invasion of bacteria into the corneal stroma induces the infiltration of leukocytes and subsequent corneal ulceration. The role of corneal fibroblasts in the detection of bacterial invasion into the stroma was investigated by examining the in vitro expression of the receptor complex for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a common component of Gram-negative(More)
PURPOSE The corneal epithelium provides a barrier that is both important for corneal homeostasis and dependent on tight junctions (TJs) between adjacent epithelial cells. The authors examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, on barrier function and the expression of TJ proteins in simian virus(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)4, and IL-13 on expression of the chemokine eotaxin by cultured human keratocytes. METHODS Cultured human keratocytes were incubated with various combinations and concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-4, and IL-13. The concentration of eotaxin in the culture supernatant was(More)
PURPOSE Corneal ulcer results from excessive collagen degradation in the corneal stroma. Interleukin (IL)-1 promotes this process by activating signaling molecules that include nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and stimulating the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in corneal fibroblasts. NF-kappaB activation is mediated by phosphorylation of the(More)
PURPOSE The synthesis of chemokines and adhesion molecules by corneal fibroblasts contributes to the development of corneal lesions in severe ocular allergy. The effects of the antiallergy drug tranilast on the expression of such molecules were examined in human corneal fibroblasts. METHODS The release of chemokines into culture supernatants and the(More)
For knowledge representation and reasoning, there is a need to consider the nature of events because event data describe various features and behaviors of the occurrences of actions and changes in the real world. In this paper, we propose to establish an upper event-ontology in order-sorted logic as an infrastructure for event knowledge bases. Our event(More)
PURPOSE The production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as the surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 by corneal fibroblasts contribute to corneal inflammation. The effects of triptolide on the expression of these proteins induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human corneal fibroblasts were examined in comparison(More)
In general, it is not easy to specify a single sequence identity for each molecule name that appears in a pathway in the scientific literature. A molecule name may stand for concepts of various granularities, from concrete objects such as H-Ras and ERK1 to abstract concepts or categories such as Ras and MAPK. Typically, the relations among molecule names(More)
PURPOSE The detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by human cells is facilitated by LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble (s)CD14. The effects of these proteins on chemokine release and adhesion molecule expression in cultured human corneal fibroblasts were examined. METHODS The release of chemokines into culture supernatants and the expression(More)
The Integrating Network Objects with Hierarchies (INOH) database is a highly structured, manually curated database of signal transduction pathways including Mammalia, Xenopus laevis, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and canonical. Since most pathway knowledge resides in scientific articles, the database focuses on curating and encoding(More)