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Mean annual sea levels at 247 tide-gauge stations of the world exhibit a general rise of relative sea level of about 3 mm/year during the past 40 years. In contrast, general uplift of the land is typical of high northern latitudes, where unloading of the crust by melt of Pleistocene ice sheets is significant. Erratic movements are typical of belts having… (More)
A sea-level curve of the past 35,000 years for the Atlantic continental shelf of the United States is based on more than 80 radiocarbon dates, 15 of which are older than 15,000 years. Materials include shallow-water mollusks, oolites, coralline algae, beachrock, and salt-marsh peat. Sea level 30,000 to 35,000 years ago was near the present one. Subsequent… (More)
Variations in annual river inflow account for 7 to 21 percent of the total variation in average annual sea level along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States. This compares with 29 to 68 percent of the total variation that can be attributed to the secular rise of sea level, and with 10 to 50 percent of the variation that cannot be… (More)
Teeth of mastodons and mammoths have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, anz relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25,000 years.
Relative sea levels for early post-Pleistocene time are best known from radiocarbon dates of sediments on the continental shelves off Texas and off northeastern United States. Differences in indicated rates of the rise of relative sea level and in depths of the shelf-breaks reveal differential vertical movement of the two shelves during this time, with the… (More)
Freshwater peats from the continental shelf off northeastern United States contain the same general pollen sequence as peats from ponds that are above sea level and that are of comparable radiocarbon ages. These peats indicate that during glacial times of low sea level terrestrial vegetation covered the region that is now the continental shelf in an… (More)
This paper presents an overview of the World Photo-voltaic Scale (WPVS) international reference cell calibration program. The WPVS provides a scale for PV performance measurements that has been established through round-robin calibration of a group of primary reference cells and is traceable to Système International (SI) units. Procedures for recalibration… (More)
The pattern of surface circulation has been mapped for more than 40 lakes, marginal seas, estuaries, and lagoons. All are within the northern hemisphere, and all except one are known to have a counterclockwise pattern. This consistent pattern is attributed to the drag of wind blowing across the bodies of water. Warmer surface water is displaced to the… (More)
Shells of long-dead Crassostrea virginica are reported at 71 stations in depths of 14 to 82 meters. The depths exceed those of the estuaries where the species flourishes. Radiocarbon measurements indicate that the oysters were alive 8000 to 11,000 years ago. It is concluded that the oysters lived in lagoons or estuaries which became submerged when the sea… (More)
Flint pebbles and nodules from the Upper Cretaceous chalks of Europe occur offshore and at many seaports along the Atlantic coast of North America, where they were brought as ship's ballast. Isolated pieces imported from Europe as gunflints also are present.