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BACKGROUND In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. METHODS In 2004 we conducted a prospective study at 12 Quebec hospitals to determine the incidence of nosocomial C. difficile-associated diarrhea and its complications and a case-control study to identify(More)
Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping provides a powerful method for fine-structure localization of rare disease genes, but has not yet been widely applied to common disease. We sought to design a systematic approach for LD mapping and apply it to the localization of a gene (IBD5) conferring susceptibility to Crohn disease. The key issues are: (i) to detect a(More)
The draft genome sequence of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, along with associated gene models, has been a valuable research resource. However, recently accumulated expressed sequence tag (EST)/cDNA data have revealed numerous inconsistencies with the gene models due in part to intrinsic limitations in gene prediction programs and in part to the fragmented(More)
Campomelic dysplasia (CD), a skeletal malformation syndrome with or without XY sex reversal, is usually caused by mutations within the SOX9 gene on distal 17q. Several CD translocation and inversion cases have been described with breakpoints outside the coding region, mapping to locations >130 kb proximal to SOX9. Such cases are generally less severely(More)
Insulin from the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans controls energy homeostasis in vertebrates, and its deficiency causes diabetes mellitus. During embryonic development, the transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) initiates the differentiation of the beta-cells and other islet cell types from pancreatic endoderm, but the genetic program(More)
Despite the central importance of noncoding DNA to gene regulation and evolution, understanding of the extent of selection on plant noncoding DNA remains limited compared to that of other organisms. Here we report sequencing of genomes from three Brassicaceae species (Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and Aethionema arabicum) and their joint analysis(More)
Cis-acting variants altering gene expression are a source of phenotypic differences. The cis-acting components of expression variation can be identified through the mapping of differences in allelic expression (AE), which is the measure of relative expression between two allelic transcripts. We generated a map of AE associated SNPs using quantitative(More)
The amphioxus Hox cluster is often viewed as "archetypal" for the chordate lineage. Here, we present a descriptive account of the 448 kb region spanning the Hox cluster of the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae from Hox14 to Hox1. We provide complete coding sequences of all 14 previously described amphioxus sequences and give a detailed analysis of the(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant that serves as the major model system in plant molecular genetics. The efforts of many scientists have produced genetic maps that provide extensive coverage of the genome (http://genome-www. stanford.edu/Arabidopsis/maps.html). Recently, detailed YAC, BAC, P1 and cosmid-based physical maps (that is,(More)
The genome of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has five chromosomes. Here we report the sequence of the largest, chromosome 1, in two contigs of around 14.2 and 14.6 megabases. The contigs extend from the telomeres to the centromeric borders, regions rich in transposons, retrotransposons and repetitive elements such as the 180-base-pair repeat. The(More)