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Most cases of idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) likely result from unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. These triggers may include maternal exposure of a fetus to minute concentrations of pharmaceuticals, such as carbamazepine (CBZ), venlafaxine (VNX) and fluoxetine (FLX). Unmetabolized pharmaceuticals reach(More)
Psychoactive pharmaceuticals have been found as teratogens at clinical dosage during pregnancy. These pharmaceuticals have also been detected in minute (ppb) concentrations in drinking water in the US, and are environmental contaminants that may be complicit in triggering neurological disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. Previous studies have(More)
Pikas (Ochotona princeps: Lagomorpha) build caches of vegetation ("haypiles"), which serve as a food source during winter in alpine and subalpine habitats. Haypiles appear to degrade over time and form patches of nutrient-rich soils in barren talus and scree areas. We sampled soils underneath and next to haypiles, and plants growing on and near haypiles in(More)
Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a composite of mosses, lichens, and bacteria that performs many important soil system functions, including increasing soil stability, protecting against wind erosion, reducing nutrient loss, and mediating carbon and nitrogen fixation cycles. These cold desert and steppe ecosystems are expected to experience directional(More)
For long-lived species, environmental factors experienced early in life can have lasting effects persisting into adulthood. Large herbivores can be susceptible to cohort-wide declines in fitness as a result of decreases in forage availability, because of extrinsic factors, including extreme climate or high population densities. To examine effects of(More)
Nonnative Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is decimating sagebrush steppe, one of the largest ecosystems in the Western United States, and is causing regional-scale shifts in the predominant plant-fungal interactions. Sagebrush, a native perennial, hosts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas cheatgrass, a winter annual, is a relatively poor host of AMF.(More)
We measured population abundance and density of Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli) before and during gray wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (Canis latrans) harvest for 3 years (1998–2000) on two similar and adjacent study sites with treatment (canid harvests) and reference (no canid harvest) in interior Alaska, USA. Between 1998 and 1999, density of Dall’s sheep in the(More)