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Influenza A viruses, including H1N1 and H5N1 subtypes, pose a serious threat to public health. Neuraminidase (NA)-related immunity contributes to protection against influenza virus infection. Antibodies to the N1 subtype provide protection against homologous and heterologous H1N1 as well as H5N1 virus challenge. Since neither the strain-specific nor(More)
UNLABELLED Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are genetically highly variable and have diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade. Antigenic drift is a well-studied phenomenon for seasonal human influenza viruses, but much less is known about the antigenic evolution of HPAI H5N1 viruses that(More)
Until recently, influenza A viruses from wild waterfowl in South America were rarely isolated and/or characterized. To explore the ecology of influenza A viruses in this region, a long-term surveillance program was established in 2006 for resident and migratory water birds in Argentina. We report the characterization of 5 avian influenza viruses of the H6(More)
A novel, swine-origin influenza H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm) caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. This pandemic, although efficient in transmission, is mild in virulence. This atypical mild pandemic season has raised concerns regarding the potential of this virus to acquire additional virulence markers either through further adaptation or possibly by(More)
As part of our ongoing efforts on animal influenza surveillance in Argentina, an H9N2 virus was isolated from a wild aquatic bird (Netta peposaca), A/rosy-billed pochard/Argentina/CIP051-559/2007 (H9N2) - herein referred to as 559/H9N2. Due to the important role that H9N2 viruses play in the ecology of influenza in nature, the 559/H9N2 isolate was(More)
Recent gain-of-function studies in influenza A virus H5N1 strains revealed that as few as three-amino-acid changes in the hemagglutinin protein confer the capacity for viral transmission between ferrets. As transmission between ferrets is considered a surrogate indicator of transmissibility between humans, these studies raised concerns about the risks of(More)
Since 1999, plasmid-based reverse genetics (RG) systems have revolutionized the way influenza viruses are studied. However, it is not unusual to encounter cloning difficulties for one or more influenza genes while attempting to recover virus de novo. To overcome some of these shortcomings we sought to develop partial or full plasmid-free RG systems. The(More)
Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses are endemic in poultry in Asia and pose a pandemic threat to humans. Since the deployment of vaccines against a pandemic strain may take several months, adequate antiviral alternatives are needed to minimize the effects and the spread of the disease. Passive immunotherapy is regarded as a viable alternative.(More)
Björn F. Koel,a Stefan van der Vliet,a David F. Burke,b,c Theo M. Bestebroer,a Eny E. Bharoto,d I. Wayan W. Yasa,d Inna Herliana,d Brigitta M. Laksono,a,d Kemin Xu,e Eugene Skepner,b,c Colin A. Russell,c,f Guus F. Rimmelzwaan,a Daniel R. Perez,e Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus,a Derek J. Smith,a,b,c Teguh Y. Prajitno,d Ron A. M. Fouchiera Department of(More)
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