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We elicited repetitive discharge in hypoglossal motoneurons recorded in slices of rat brain stem using a combination of a suprathreshold injected current step with superimposed noise to mimic the synaptic drive likely to occur during physiological activation. The effects of repetitive en mass stimulation of afferent nerves were simulated by the further(More)
This paper describes a new method that uses the frequency of firing of motor units to estimate the stimulus-induced net post-synaptic potential (PSP) and the synaptic noise in the membrane of voluntarily active human motoneurons. Unlike the peri-stimulus time histogram (PSTH) which is the most commonly used method for assessing stimulus-induced synaptic(More)
The role of periodontal mechanoreceptors (PMRs) in the reflex control of the jaw muscles has thus far been mainly derived from animal studies. To date, the work that has been done on humans has been limited and confined to orthogonal stimulation of the labial surface of the tooth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the masseter and(More)
Our understanding of the operation of the brain depends on knowledge of its wiring. Currently, the wiring of the human brain is estimated by counting the number of neuron discharges that occur at specific times following a stimulus. There is now strong evidence that this approach generates significant errors. Recently, the accuracy of this 'count' method(More)
Classical techniques for estimating postsynaptic potentials in motoneurones include spike-triggered averages of rectified surface and multiunit electromyographic recordings (SEMG and MU-EMG), as well as the compilation of peristimulus time histograms (PSTH) based on the discharge of single motor units (SMU). These techniques rely on the probability of spike(More)
The aim of this review is to discuss what is known about the reflex control of the human masticatory system and to propose a method for standardized investigation. Literature regarding the current knowledge of activation of jaw muscles, receptors involved in the feedback control, and reflex pathways is discussed. The reflexes are discussed under the(More)
A novel stimulating protocol was used to demonstrate the existence of a biphasic inhibitory reflex in single soleus motor neurones in response to weak stimulation of the tibial nerve in human subjects. The stimulus intensity was sufficient to evoke a small M-response but was subthreshold for the H-reflex. Stronger stimulation caused the 2 phases of(More)
1. The reflex responses evoked in the human masseter muscle by controlled mechanical stimulation of an incisor tooth were examined electromyographically. The stimuli were (slow) pushes and (brisk) taps of about 0.5-3 N peak force, applied orthogonally to the labial surface. 2. The brisk taps elicited a short-latency inhibitory reflex that was often followed(More)
The latencies of the simple reaction-time responses for opening and closing of the jaws in response to taps and pushes on teeth and lip shocks were measured in human adults. The reaction times were scored from both the integrated electromyographic (EMG) signal in individual trials, and from the cumulative sum (CUSUM) of the averaged EMG response to 50(More)
Measuring human reflex responses from electromyogram (EMG) traces in an accurate, repeatable and reliable way with a high degree of specificity has traditionally been a difficult task. This paper describes a new method that can be used to quantify reflex responses from both surface and intra-muscular EMG. This technique extends the classical cumulative sum(More)