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We elicited repetitive discharge in hypoglossal motoneurons recorded in slices of rat brain stem using a combination of a suprathreshold injected current step with superimposed noise to mimic the synaptic drive likely to occur during physiological activation. The effects of repetitive en mass stimulation of afferent nerves were simulated by the further(More)
The soleus is the most commonly used muscle for H-reflex studies in humans, while limited comparable data have been produced from the gastrocnemii muscles. This article reviews the fundamental differences between the structure and function of the human soleus and gastrocnemii muscles, including recent data published about their complex innervation zones.(More)
This paper describes a new method that uses the frequency of firing of motor units to estimate the stimulus-induced net post-synaptic potential (PSP) and the synaptic noise in the membrane of voluntarily active human motoneurons. Unlike the peri-stimulus time histogram (PSTH) which is the most commonly used method for assessing stimulus-induced synaptic(More)
A novel stimulating protocol was used to demonstrate the existence of a biphasic inhibitory reflex in single soleus motor neurones in response to weak stimulation of the tibial nerve in human subjects. The stimulus intensity was sufficient to evoke a small M-response but was subthreshold for the H-reflex. Stronger stimulation caused the 2 phases of(More)
Our understanding of the operation of the brain depends on knowledge of its wiring. Currently, the wiring of the human brain is estimated by counting the number of neuron discharges that occur at specific times following a stimulus. There is now strong evidence that this approach generates significant errors. Recently, the accuracy of this 'count' method(More)
Variability in the H-reflex can make it difficult to identify significant changes using traditional pooled analysis techniques. This study was undertaken to introduce a normalisation approach to calculate both the relative size and the relative stimulus intensity required to elicit the H-reflex response so that comparisons can be made not only with results(More)
Classical techniques for estimating postsynaptic potentials in motoneurones include spike-triggered averages of rectified surface and multiunit electromyographic recordings (SEMG and MU-EMG), as well as the compilation of peristimulus time histograms (PSTH) based on the discharge of single motor units (SMU). These techniques rely on the probability of spike(More)
The reflex responses evoked by controlled mechanical stimulation of an upper central incisor tooth in single motor units in the human masseter muscle were examined. The stimuli were (brisk) taps and (slow) pushes of about 2 N peak force, applied orthogonally to the labial surface of the ipsilateral upper central incisor tooth. The reflex responses of the(More)
The reflex responses evoked by slowly rising pressure "push' stimuli to an upper lateral incisor tooth in human masseter muscle were studied. Factors such as the preload (the static force applied to the tooth by the stimulus probe before the start of the push stimulus) and the shape of the stimulus wave affected the outcome of the reflex response. When the(More)
The aim of this review is to discuss what is known about the reflex control of the human masticatory system and to propose a method for standardized investigation. Literature regarding the current knowledge of activation of jaw muscles, receptors involved in the feedback control, and reflex pathways is discussed. The reflexes are discussed under the(More)