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OBJECTIVES Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged to cause fatal infections in patients in the Middle East and traveler-associated secondary cases in Europe and Africa. Person-to-person transmission is evident in outbreaks involving household and hospital contacts. Effective antivirals are urgently needed. METHODS We used(More)
The emerging novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC) was recently isolated from patients with severe pneumonia and renal failure and was associated with an unexplained high crude fatality rate of 56%. We performed a cell line susceptibility study with 28 cell lines. HCoV-EMC was found to infect the human respiratory tract (polarized airway(More)
Infection with either influenza A H5N1 virus in 1997 or avian influenza A H7N9 virus in 2013 caused severe pneumonia that did not respond to typical or atypical antimicrobial treatment, and resulted in high mortality. Both viruses are reassortants with internal genes derived from avian influenza A H9N2 viruses that circulate in Asian poultry. Both viruses(More)
The source of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic was traced to wildlife market civets and ultimately to bats. Subsequent hunting for novel coronaviruses (CoVs) led to the discovery of two additional human and over 40 animal CoVs, including the prototype lineage C betacoronaviruses, Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5;(More)
BACKGROUND Human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus emerged in eastern China in February, 2013, and has been associated with exposure to poultry. We report the clinical and microbiological features of patients infected with influenza A H7N9 virus and compare genomic features of the human virus with those of the virus in market poultry in Zhejiang,(More)
The D225G (aspartic acid to glycine) substitution in the hemagglutinin of H1N1 influenza virus may alter its receptor-binding specificity. Direct analysis of polymorphisms in 126 amino acids spanning the receptor-binding site in the hemagglutinin of pandemic H1N1 2009 virus from 117 clinical specimens in Hong Kong found the D225G substitution for 7 (12.5%)(More)
The world had been anticipating another influenza pandemic since the last one in 1968. The pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 virus (A/2009/H1N1) finally arrived, causing the first pandemic influenza of the new millennium, which has affected over 214 countries and caused over 18,449 deaths. Because of the persistent threat from the A/H5N1 virus since 1997 and(More)
As exemplified by coronaviruses and influenza viruses, bats and birds are natural reservoirs for providing viral genes during evolution of new virus species and viruses for interspecies transmission. These warm-blooded vertebrates display high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system, which are favorable(More)
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) closely resembled severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in disease manifestation as rapidly progressive acute pneumonia with multi-organ dysfunction. Using monocyte-derived-dendritic cells (Mo-DCs), we discovered fundamental discrepancies in the outcome of MERS-CoV- and(More)
OBJECTIVES A severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like disease due to a novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC), has emerged recently. HCoV-EMC is phylogenetically closely related to Tylonycteris-bat-coronavirus-HKU4 and Pipistrellus-bat-coronavirus-HKU5 in Hong Kong. We conducted a seroprevalence study on archived sera from 94 game-food(More)