Kelly W. Williams

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BACKGROUND Iron status degrades in female soldiers during military training. Inflammation-mediated up-regulation of hepcidin, a key mediator of iron homeostasis, may be a contributing factor. OBJECTIVE We measured the efficacy of an iron-fortified food product for maintaining iron status in female soldiers during basic combat training (BCT) and examined(More)
BACKGROUND Decrements in iron status have been reported in female soldiers during military training. Diminished iron status adversely affects physical and cognitive performance. OBJECTIVE We wanted to determine whether iron supplementation could prevent decrements in iron status and improve measures of physical performance and cognitive status in female(More)
Popular running magazines and running shoe companies suggest that imprints of the bottom of the feet (plantar shape) can be used as an indication of the height of the medial longitudinal foot arch and that this can be used to select individually appropriate types of running shoes. This study examined whether or not this selection technique influenced injury(More)
Fe is an essential micronutrient required for optimal cognitive and physical performance. Cross-sectional studies indicate that training degrades Fe status in female military personnel; however, longitudinal studies to measure the direct impact of military training on Fe status and performance have not been conducted. As such, the objective of the present(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health, to include protecting against stress fracture during periods of rapid bone turnover. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess vitamin D status, biomarkers of bone turnover, and vitamin D and calcium intake in female Soldiers (n = 91) during US Army basic(More)
Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously(More)
INTRODUCTION U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) soldiers deploy frequently and conduct military operations through special warfare and surgical strike capabilities. Tasks required to execute these capabilities may induce physical and mental stress and have the potential to degrade soldier physiological status. No investigations have longitudinally(More)
BACKGROUND Associations between obesity and poor iron status have been described in children and adults. Proposed mechanisms for this association implicate a physiologic etiology, suggesting body fat accretion may progressively degrade iron status. However, the relationship between iron status and body composition in non-obese adults remains unclear. (More)
Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health. Recent data suggest that vitamin D and calcium supplementation might affect stress fracture incidence in military personnel. Although stress fracture is a health risk for military personnel during training, no study has investigated changes in vitamin D status in Soldiers during United States(More)
Past studies indicated that overall Basic Combat Training (BCT) attrition (discharge) was associated with various risk factors. BCT has changed considerably since many of these studies were conducted. This study examined Soldiers medically attrited from BCT. Potential attrition risk factor data on recruits (n = 4,005) were collected from medical records,(More)