Kelly P. Cosgrove

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Clinical and epidemiologic evidence demonstrates sex differences in the prevalence and course of various psychiatric disorders. Understanding sex-specific brain differences in healthy individuals is a critical first step toward understanding sex-specific expression of psychiatric disorders. Here, we evaluate evidence on sex differences in brain structure,(More)
This experiment examines the effect of access to a running-wheel on intravenous cocaine self-administration in male and female rats. Rats maintained at 85% of their free-feeding body weight were first exposed to the running-wheel alone during the 6-h sessions until behavior stabilized for 14 days. Intravenous cannulae were then implanted, and the rats were(More)
Nicotine, the addictive chemical in tobacco smoke, initiates its actions in brain through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In particular, nAChRs containing beta2-subunits (beta2*-nAChRs) the most prevalent subtype, mediate the reinforcing properties of nicotine. We hypothesized that abnormal numbers of beta2*-nAChRs during early abstinence(More)
Evidence is accumulating that the etiology, epidemiology, consequences and mechanisms that underlie drug abuse are different in males and females. In this review, we present examples of sex differences in all phases of drug abuse, including acquisition, steady-state maintenance, escalation, dysregulation, withdrawal, relapse and treatment. Most reported(More)
UNLABELLED Microglia play an essential role in many brain diseases. Microglia are activated by local tissue damage or inflammation, but systemic inflammation can also activate microglia. An important clinical question is whether the effects of systemic inflammation on microglia mediate the deleterious effects of systemic inflammation in diseases such as(More)
CONTEXT Available levels of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the beta(2) subunit (beta(2)*-nAChR) are higher in recently abstinent tobacco smokers compared with participants who never smoked. Variations in beta(2)*-nAChR availability during the course of abstinence may be related to the urge to smoke, the extent of nicotine withdrawal, and(More)
Clinical and preclinical findings indicate that males and females differ on several aspects of drug reinforcement. Females are more vulnerable than males during transition periods of drug use that are characteristic of drug addiction and relapse. Females are also more sensitive than males to the reinforcing effects of stimulants. It has been suggested that(More)
Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter availability in heroin users and healthy controls was measured using [¹²³I]β-CIT and SPECT imaging. Heroin users had statistically similar striatal DA and brainstem and diencephalon 5-HT transporter availability compared with controls. No associations between transporter availability and heroin use(More)
There is increasing evidence that kappa-opioid receptor agonists modulate cocaine-maintained behavior, and limited findings implicate the involvement of kappa-opioid receptors in ethanol-maintained behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of bremazocine, a kappa-opioid agonist, on the self-administration of smoked cocaine(More)
CONTEXT Sex differences exist in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, smoking cessation rates, and response to nicotine therapies. Sex differences in availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the β(2) subunit (β(2)*-nAChRs) may underlie differential nicotine and tobacco smoking effects and related behaviors in women vs men. OBJECTIVES(More)