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Morphine-6 beta-glucuronide is a major metabolite of morphine with potent analgesic actions. To define more fully the importance of this compound in morphine action, we have compared the analgesic actions of morphine and its 6 beta-glucuronide metabolite after both peripheral and central administration. Given s.c., morphine-6 beta-glucuronide elicited(More)
Understanding the pharmacology of opioid receptors took a major step forward with the cloning of genes that encode four members of the opioid receptor family. Gavril Pasternak and Kelly Standifer show how strategies that use antisense oligodeoxynucleotides can provide a selective approach to correlate the properties of the cloned receptors with their in(More)
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (18-20 bases) to a cloned delta opioid receptor (DOR-1) lower delta binding in NG108-15 cells by 40%-50%. Changing 4 bases to generate a mismatch antisense oligodeoxynucleotide or mixing the corresponding sense and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides prior to treatment of the cells eliminates the inhibition of binding, confirming(More)
Morphine-6beta-glucuronide (M6G) is a potent morphine metabolite. In an effort to further explore its mechanisms of action, we synthesized 3H-M6G of high specific activity and examined its binding. Although its affinity toward traditional mu receptors is similar to morphine in binding assays in brain and in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected(More)
Although morphine and its active metabolite, morphine-6beta-glucuronide (M6G), each induce mu-opioid receptor-sensitive feeding, different antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS ODN) probes directed against the MOR-1 clone produce distinct effects. Thus, MOR-1 AS ODN probes directed against exons 1 or 4 reduce morphine-, but not M6G-induced feeding, whereas(More)
Central morphine analgesia is significantly greater in male than in female rats. Since mu and delta opioid receptor subtypes have been implicated in supraspinal analgesia, the present study evaluated whether gender or adult gonadectomy altered (a) analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests following central administration of the mu-selective agonist,(More)
An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide directed against the 5'-untranslated region of MOR-1 blocks the analgesic actions of the mu 1 analgesics morphine and [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADL) when they are microinjected into the periaqueductal gray. In contrast, morphine-6 beta-glucuronide (M6G) analgesia is unaffected by this treatment. Antisense(More)
BACKGROUND Syntaxins 1 through 4 are SNAP receptor (SNARE) proteins that mediate vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane. In retina, syntaxins 1 and 3 are expressed at conventional and ribbon synapses, respectively, suggesting that synaptic trafficking functions differ among syntaxin isoforms. To better understand syntaxins in synaptic signaling and(More)
The present study evaluated the central effects of beta-funaltrexamine (B-FNA), a non-equilibrium antagonist of mu-opioid receptors and a reversible agonist of kappa-opioid receptors upon food intake in rats under freely-feeding, deprivation and glucoprivic conditions. B-FNA elicited distinct short-term and long-term actions, consistent with binding studies(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical studies indicate that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently shares co-morbidity with chronic pain. Although in animals acute stress-induced antinociception is well documented, the effect of PTSD-like stress on nociceptive sensitivity is unclear. Though a few studies measured nociceptive responses at a single time point, no(More)