Kelly K Kao

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Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has become a major therapeutic option in the management of patients undergoing transplantation, as well as in the treatment of autoimmune conditions. Case reports have suggested that MMF use during pregnancy is associated with a specific pattern of congenital malformations. Because many pregnancies are unplanned, it is imperative(More)
Topical tretinoin (Retin-A) is used to treat acne and photodamaged skin. Its teratogenic potential is of concern due to its similarity to isotretinoin (Accutane), a recognized human teratogen. Through the California Teratogen Information Service and Clinical Research Program, between 1983 and 2003, 106 pregnant women with first-trimester exposure to topical(More)
BACKGROUND The physical features of fetal alcohol syndrome include smooth philtrum, thin vermillion border, short palpebral fissures, microcephaly, and growth deficiencies on weight and height. However, little is known about the specific quantities of alcohol exposure, pattern of drinking, timing of exposure, and magnitude of risk for each of these(More)
We aimed to estimate the reliability of the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and its validity in predicting maternal depression and quality of life (QoL). Data regarding stress, depression and QoL were collected during pregnancy among a sub-sample from the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists Antidepressants in Pregnancy Cohort. The 4-item(More)
OBJECTIVE High-dose methotrexate (MTX) exposure during pregnancy is associated with embryopathy. The teratogenic potential of MTX at dosages typically used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion, major birth defects, elective termination of pregnancy, shortened(More)
BACKGROUND Fewer than 40% of U.S. women are taking folic acid supplements periconceptionally at a time when the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) can be reduced by supplementation. A better understanding of the vitamin-taking habits of childbearing-age women and effective methods for improving periconceptional supplement use are needed. METHODS A(More)
BACKGROUND Fenfluramine was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1997 because of its association with cardiac-valve abnormalities in adults. The combination of fenfluramine and phentermine had been widely used to promote weight loss, and many women were inadvertently exposed during the first trimester of pregnancy. The possible effect on the developing fetus(More)
This prospective cohort study compares the breastfeeding outcomes of women exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants at the time of delivery, those who discontinued use prior to delivery, and those not exposed. Participants include 466 pregnant women who enrolled in the California Teratogen Information Service Clinical(More)
The characteristic facial features of the more severe end of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) include smooth philtrum, thin vermillion of the upper lip, and short palpebral fissures. A systematic evaluation of a comprehensive list of minor structural defects in association with varying patterns of prenatal exposure to alcohol has not been performed.(More)
Over the last several decades, federal agencies engaged in the screening of environmental or pharmaceutical agents have recognized the need to conduct research in animal models to identify agents that have classic teratogenic effects as well as effects on neural and behavioral development. Many questions typically addressed in rodent models can be further(More)