Kelly J. Stanhope

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Although considerable progress has been made in characterising the 5-HT1A receptor using agonists, partial agonists or non-selective antagonists, further studies of 5-HT1A receptor function have been hindered by the lack of highly selective antagonists. The term 'silent' antagonist has been used for such compounds in order to distinguish them unequivocally(More)
The effects of the muscarinic antagonists scopolamine HBr and MeBr, the 5-HT1A agonst 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), and theN-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists MK-801 and CGS-19755 on performance of rats in a delayed matching-to-position task were examined. Pretreatment with scopolamine HBr (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg), resulted in a(More)
The muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline was examined and compared with the antipsychotics clozapine and/or haloperidol in the following in vivo rat models: apomorphine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI), amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, and the conditioned emotional response (CER) test. The effects of xanomeline were also assessed ex(More)
The phenomenon of “one-trial tolerance” to the effects of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (CDP) in the elevated plus maze was re-examined. Unlike previous experiments, pre-exposure to the maze resulted in habituation and a consequential reduction in time spent on the open arms. The habituation effect was measured by recording the actual distance travelled by(More)
A wide range of approaches has been used to study anxiety in mice. All presuppose that aversive stimuli, such as foot shock or novelty, induce a central state of fear, which can be quantified through specific behavioural and physiological measures. This review discusses the validity of the various approaches in terms of their similarity to different human(More)
The effects of the CCKB receptor antagonists L-365,260, CI-988 and L-740,093, a new compound with improved bioavailability and CNS penetration, were assessed for anxiolytic-like effects in three rat anxiolytic screens sensitive to benzodiazepines, the elevated plus maze (EPM), conditioned suppression of drinking (CSD) and conditioned emotional response(More)
In the present study, the effects of 5-HT1A receptor ligands with varying degrees of intrinsic activity at the 5-HT1A receptor were examined in the conditioned emotional response (CER) test and their effects compared to those of the benzodiazepine receptor agonists, diazepam and chlordiazepoxide. Diazepam (3.0 mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (3.0 mg/kg), and(More)
Many anticonvulsants are used in disorders other than epilepsy. For example, lamotrigine is reported to be effective in post-traumatic stress disorder and mania. We assessed the effects of the anticonvulsants lamotrigine, valproate and carbamazepine in an animal model of anxiety. We assessed a wide range of pharmacological tools to delineate the mechanism(More)
There is increasing interest in the potential functional role of the octapeptide angiotensin II (AII) in psychiatric and cognitive disorders. The novel angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123177, selective for the AT1 and AT2 receptor subtypes respectively, constitute important pharmacological tools for the assessment of the(More)
 The effects of the muscarinic antagonists, scopolamine HBr and MeBr, a cholinesterase inhibitor, E2020, and K+ channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and apamin, on the performance of rats in a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task were examined. The percentage of correct choices (choice accuracy), number of trials completed and intertrial intervals(More)