Learn More
Background Since its initial detection in April 2009, the A/H1N1pdm influenza virus has spread rapidly in humans, with over 5,700 human deaths. However, little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of H1N1pdm and its geographic and temporal diversification.Methods Phylogenetic analysis was conducted upon the concatenated coding regions of whole-genome(More)
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4.(More)
Spatial variation in the epidemiological patterns of successive waves of pandemic influenza virus in humans has been documented throughout the 20th century but never understood at a molecular level. However, the unprecedented intensity of sampling and whole-genome sequencing of the H1N1/09 pandemic virus now makes such an approach possible. To determine(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory-tract infections in infants and young children worldwide. Despite this, only six complete genome sequences of original strains have been previously published, the most recent of which dates back 35 and 26 years for RSV group A and group B respectively. (More)
BACKGROUND In recent years significant advances in the laboratory diagnostics available to detect respiratory viral infections have been achieved. METHODS This article presents the types of diagnostic methods currently available to the practitioner, as well as those on the horizon. The article covers tissue culture, serology and direct examination as well(More)
BACKGROUND The epidemiology of community-acquired respiratory viruses at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin between 1996 and 1998 was examined with molecular [multiplex (M) PCR] and standard virologic methods. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 3325 patients with lower respiratory infection (LRI) [bronchiolitis (42%), pneumonia (38%) and croup (12%)] were(More)
The menu of diagnostic tools that can be utilized to establish a diagnosis of influenza is extensive and includes classic virology techniques as well as new and emerging methods. This review of how the various existing diagnostic methods have been utilized, first in the context of a rapidly evolving outbreak of novel influenza virus and then during the(More)
Rapid, semiautomated, and fully automated multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were developed and validated for the detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from nasopharyngeal specimens. The assays can detect human H1N1, H3N2, and swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 Flu A viruses and were effectively used to distinguish Flu A(More)
The Hexaplex assay (Prodesse, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis.) is a multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay for the detection of parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) types A and B, and influenza virus types A and B. We evaluated the Hexaplex assay in comparison with conventional viral cell cultures and rapid enzyme(More)