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BACKGROUND Response inhibition is a prototypical executive function of considerable clinical relevance to psychiatry. Nevertheless, our understanding of its pharmacological modulation remains incomplete. METHODS We used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design to examine the effect of an acute dose of methylphenidate (MPH) (30 mg),(More)
BACKGROUND Attention bias modification (ABM) procedures have been shown to modify biased attention with important implications for emotional vulnerability and resilience. The use of ABM to reduce potentially toxic biases, for instance, is a newly emerging therapy for anxiety disorders. A separate line of gene-by-environment interaction research proposes(More)
Spatial asymmetries are an intriguing feature of directed attention. Recent observations indicate an influence of temperament upon the direction of these asymmetries. It is unknown whether this influence generalises to visual orienting behaviour. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore the relationship between temperament and measures of(More)
Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) technology ("Airwave") has led to public concern because of its potential interference with electrical activity in the brain. The present study is the first to examine whether acute exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on cognitive functioning and physiological responses. Participants were exposed to a 420(More)
A growing body of research suggests that dual-task interference in sensory consolidation (e.g., the attentional blink, AB) and response selection (e.g., the psychological refractory period, PRP) stems from a common central bottleneck of information processing. With regard to response selection, it is well known that training reduces dual-task interference.(More)
BACKGROUND "Airwave" is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets.(More)
Negotiating the information-rich sensory world often requires the concurrent management of multiple tasks. Despite this requirement, humans are thought to be poor at multitasking because of the processing limitations of frontoparietal and subcortical (FP-SC) brain regions. Although training is known to improve multitasking performance, it is unknown how the(More)
UNLABELLED The ability to perform multiple, concurrent tasks efficiently is a much-desired cognitive skill, but one that remains elusive due to the brain's inherent information-processing limitations. Multitasking performance can, however, be greatly improved through cognitive training (Van Selst et al., 1999, Dux et al., 2009). Previous studies have(More)
Although humans show a remarkable ability to make rapid and accurate decisions in novel situations, it is surprisingly difficult to observe transferable benefits when training decision-making performance. The current study investigated whether 2 properties of decision-making-amodal processing and encoding of abstract relationships-could be leveraged to(More)
The abilities to select appropriate responses and suppress unwanted actions are key executive functions that enable flexible and goal-directed behavior. However, to date it has been unclear whether these two cognitive operations tap a common action control resource or reflect two distinct processes. In the present study, we used an individual differences(More)