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Here, we demonstrate that subject motion produces substantial changes in the timecourses of resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data despite compensatory spatial registration and regression of motion estimates from the data. These changes cause systematic but spurious correlation structures throughout the brain. Specifically, many(More)
Group functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies have documented reliable changes in human functional brain maturity over development. Here we show that support vector machine-based multivariate pattern analysis extracts sufficient information from fcMRI data to make accurate predictions about individuals' brain maturity across(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by atypicalities in domains that are posited to rely on implicit learning processes such as social communication, language, and motor behavior. The authors examined 2 forms of implicit learning in 14 children with high-functioning ASD (10 of whom were diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome) and 14 control children,(More)
Studies in non-human primates and humans reveal that discrete regions (henceforth, "divisions") in the basal ganglia are intricately interconnected with regions in the cerebral cortex. However, divisions within basal ganglia nuclei (e.g., within the caudate) are difficult to identify using structural MRI. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI)(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children is increasingly used in clinical application and in developmental research; however, little is known how pediatric patient and typically developing populations successfully complete studies. We examined pediatric success rates with epilepsy, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism(More)
The spatial contextual cuing task (SCCT) (Chun & Jiang, 1998) is an implicit learning task that appears to depend on the medial temporal lobes. This unusual combination has been of interest in functional imaging studies and research with clinical populations, where testing time is at a premium. However, the original version of the SCCT is time-consuming. In(More)
A key question in developmental neuroscience involves understanding how and when the cerebral cortex is partitioned into distinct functional areas. The present study used functional connectivity MRI mapping and graph theory to identify putative cortical areas and generate a parcellation scheme of left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC) in 7 to 10-year-old(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity mediated by frontal-striatal-cerebellar dysfunction. These circuits support implicit learning of perceptual-motor sequences but not visual-spatial context. ADHD and control children performed the Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task, a(More)
OBJECTIVES Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on early-manifesting clinical symptoms, including markedly impaired social communication. We assessed the viability of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD and investigated which connectivity features are predictive of a diagnosis. (More)