Kellogg J. Schwab

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Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a significant cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route. The absence of a cell culture infectivity model for NoV necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate models amenable to cell culture to predict NoV inactivation. The NoV surrogates(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and are recognized as the foremost cause of foodborne illness. Despite numerous efforts, routine cell cultures have failed to yield replicating NoV. This paper describes methods used to try to grow NoV in vitro in two laboratories. Cells (A549, AGS, Caco-2, CCD-18, CRFK, CR-PEC, Detroit(More)
The use of nontherapeutic levels of antibiotics in swine production can select for antibiotic resistance in commensal and pathogenic bacteria in swine. As a result, retail pork products, as well as surface and groundwaters contaminated with swine waste, have been shown to be sources of human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, it is unclear(More)
BACKGROUND The nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in swine feed can select for antibiotic resistance in swine enteric bacteria. Leaking swine waste storage pits and the land-application of swine manure can result in the dispersion of resistant bacteria to water sources. However, there are few data comparing levels of resistant bacteria in swine(More)
Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis and microsporidiosis are serious human diseases of waterborne origin; their etiologic agents and a substantial fecal coliform load can enter surface, drinking and recreational water resources from aquatic birds. The aim of this article is to present interactions between waterfowl and these waters that imply a negative public(More)
To examine the long-term infectivity of human norovirus in water, 13 study subjects were challenged at different time points with groundwater spiked with the prototype human norovirus, Norwalk virus. Norwalk virus spiked in groundwater remained infectious after storage at room temperature in the dark for 61 days (the last time point tested). The Norwalk(More)
BACKGROUND The role of environmental surface contamination in the propagation of norovirus outbreaks is unclear. An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis was reported among residents of a 240-bed veterans long-term-care facility. OBJECTIVES To identify the likely mode of transmission, to characterize risk factors for illness, and to evaluate for environmental(More)
We investigated the thermal inactivation profiles of murine norovirus (MNV), Hepatitis A virus (HAV), and feline calicivirus (FCV), which are surrogates for the study of human noroviruses. Thermal inactivation of MNV and FCV were evaluated at 37, 50, and 60°C and HAV at 37, 50, 60, and 70°C. All viral surrogates were relatively stable at 37°C. MNV and FCV(More)
Tangential-flow ultrafiltration was optimized for the recovery of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens spores, bacteriophages MS2 and PRD1, murine norovirus, and poliovirus seeded into 100-liter surface water (SW) and drinking water (DW) samples. SW and DW collected from two drinking water treatment plants were then evaluated for(More)
This study demonstrated that a person with 30 min of occupational or nonoccupational exposure to urban feral pigeons, such as exposure through the cleaning of surfaces contaminated with pigeon excrement, could inhale approximately 3.5 x 10(3) Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores and that 1.3 x 10(3) spores could be inhaled by a nearby person.