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Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis and microsporidiosis are serious human diseases of waterborne origin; their etiologic agents and a substantial fecal coliform load can enter surface, drinking and recreational water resources from aquatic birds. The aim of this article is to present interactions between waterfowl and these waters that imply a negative public(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and are recognized as the foremost cause of foodborne illness. Despite numerous efforts, routine cell cultures have failed to yield replicating NoV. This paper describes methods used to try to grow NoV in vitro in two laboratories. Cells (A549, AGS, Caco-2, CCD-18, CRFK, CR-PEC, Detroit(More)
Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a significant cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route. The absence of a cell culture infectivity model for NoV necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate models amenable to cell culture to predict NoV inactivation. The NoV surrogates(More)
Tangential-flow ultrafiltration was optimized for the recovery of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens spores, bacteriophages MS2 and PRD1, murine norovirus, and poliovirus seeded into 100-liter surface water (SW) and drinking water (DW) samples. SW and DW collected from two drinking water treatment plants were then evaluated for(More)
The application of low pressure membranes (LPMs) to drinking water treatment and wastewater reuse has undergone accelerated development in the past decade. Integration of pretreatment with LPM filtration has been widely employed at full scale to reduce membrane fouling and/or increase the removal of certain aquatic contaminants. In principle, pretreatment(More)
The use of nontherapeutic levels of antibiotics in swine production can select for antibiotic resistance in commensal and pathogenic bacteria in swine. As a result, retail pork products, as well as surface and groundwaters contaminated with swine waste, have been shown to be sources of human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, it is unclear(More)
Rapidly growing populations and migration to urban areas in developing countries has resulted in a vital need for the establishment of centralized water systems to disseminate potable water to residents. Protected source water and modern, well-maintained drinking water treatment plants can provide water adequate for human consumption. However, ageing,(More)
BACKGROUND The role of environmental surface contamination in the propagation of norovirus outbreaks is unclear. An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis was reported among residents of a 240-bed veterans long-term-care facility. OBJECTIVES To identify the likely mode of transmission, to characterize risk factors for illness, and to evaluate for environmental(More)
BACKGROUND The nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in swine feed can select for antibiotic resistance in swine enteric bacteria. Leaking swine waste storage pits and the land-application of swine manure can result in the dispersion of resistant bacteria to water sources. However, there are few data comparing levels of resistant bacteria in swine(More)
"Norwalk-like viruses" (NLVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the most common causes of virus-mediated food-borne illness. Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks associated with these viruses have been hindered by the lack of available methods for the detection of NLVs and HAV in foodstuffs. Although reverse transcription (RT)-PCR methods have been(More)