Kellie Schoolar Reynolds

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Pharmaceutical industry investigators routinely evaluate the potential for a new drug to modify cytochrome p450 (p450) activities by determining the effect of the drug on in vitro probe reactions that represent activity of specific p450 enzymes. The in vitro findings obtained with one probe substrate are usually extrapolated to the compound's potential to(More)
The US Food and Drug Administration draft drug interaction guidance recommends that 400 mg ketoconazole (KTZ) be administered once daily for several days (QD400) for maximal CYP3A inhibition. Some investigators suggest that a single dose of 400 mg (SD400) KTZ is sufficient given its short half-life (t(1/2) approximately 3-5 hr). To determine the impact of(More)
1. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions can lead to serious adverse events and the evaluation of a new molecular entity's (NME) drug-drug interaction potential is an integral part of drug development and regulatory review before its market approval. Clinically relevant interactions mediated by transporters are of increasing interest in clinical development and(More)
Predicting clinically significant drug interactions during drug development is a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. Since the publication of the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) first in vitro and in vivo drug interaction guidance documents in 1997 and 1999, researchers and clinicians have gained a better(More)
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation is a tool that can help predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in humans and evaluate the effects of intrinsic (e.g., organ dysfunction, age, genetics) and extrinsic (e.g., drug-drug interactions) factors, alone or in combinations, on drug exposure. The use of this tool is increasing at all(More)
Chronic kidney disease, or renal impairment (RI) can increase plasma levels for drugs that are primarily renally cleared and for some drugs whose renal elimination is not a major pathway. We constructed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for 3 nonrenally eliminated drugs (sildenafil, repaglinide, and telithromycin). These models integrate(More)
Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect an individual patient's drug exposure and response. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has published a number of guidances that recommend how and when to evaluate these factors during drug development. The most recent FDA draft guidance on drug interactions provides advice for in vitro and in vivo drug(More)
Recent advances in in vitro metabolism methods have led to an improved ability to predict clinically relevant metabolic drug-drug interactions. To address the relationships of in vitro metabolism data and in vivo metabolism outcomes, the Office of Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug(More)
Nine static models (seven basic and two mechanistic) and their respective cutoff values used for predicting cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibition, as recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency, were evaluated using data from 119 clinical studies with orally administered midazolam as a substrate. Positive predictive(More)
Pharmacokinetic drug interactions can lead to serious adverse events or decreased drug efficacy. The evaluation of a new molecular entity's (NME's) drug-drug interaction potential is an integral part of risk assessment during drug development and regulatory review. Alteration of activities of enzymes or transporters involved in the absorption, distribution,(More)